Thursday, February 28, 2019
AbstractWeve all told heard the saying Dress for Success, and I call up this saying holds a very valuable meaning in each profession. The way you put not altogether affects your confidence and your self-esteem, only if it in any case casts the first impression you ar giving to your fellow colleagues and/or likely employers. What you wear exit portray a visual communication of what you assume to offer and what they can expect from you in the work field. The primary intention of dressing sea captain is to feel good ab extinct yourself and to project a positive image. Your non- vocal communication is just as distinguished as your verbal communication in any situation. Of course your skills and knowledge are an important factor, but dont forget to dress the part and command out any possibilities why sight will doubt your abilities to perform.Wed like to think that we live in a world where flock dont judge us by the clothes we wear, but the truth is appearance does matte r and the first impressions we portray reflect how we are initially judged by others. . When you dress for success people will become you more seriously and take what you have to say into consideration. Appropriate cram in the workplace oversteps you respect, and a professional image that will give your superior, colleagues, and patients trust and confidence in your abilities.There has been a lot of search that has proven that employers will likely hire a potential employee who dress and look the part. How you dress sends out many signals, ace being an potent leader. When you take the extra step to make sure your clothes are ironed, and your physical attire is up to par, people will recognize that and result your lead.In my opinion, people today underestimate the importance of a professional image. Many workplaces have a casual attire policy and people would rather blend in with the crowd then stand out and make their own personal impression. Looking for a job in the medical field is very competitive, and although your resume may be one of the most outstanding and qualified, how you look will sum up the final exam judgment. When potential employers look through tons and tons of paperwork day in and day out, everything starts to look the same, so when you come in for an interview you should chastise to standout and show them that you care about your image and how they comprehend you. How you look will put a face to the resume and swear out you stand out from the other competitors. Ever since we were young, we were taught to never judge a book by its cover, and what really matter is whats on the inside.Although the takings of how you look and what you wear may sound superficial, you have to look at yourself as a brand. Many companies today spend millions of dollars trying to get on and renew their visual image. Making sure how they look as a company and how their brand look will attract the new generations. So, it only makes sense that if a company c ares so much of their image, they will excessively care about how their employees look and carry their name to the outside world. This surmise goes hand in hand, if a company cares about how their employees look, the employees themselves should take the first step and care about their professional image.When we purchase stuff from the store, what initially attracts is that packaging, originally we judge the product by its performance. When you look good, you feel good, and ultimately that is all that matters in the end. When a person feels confident there is not stop them from achieving he/she goals. Interviews are not intended to be a mould show or beauty contest, but how you look and how you present yourself will always receive a positive reaction from the interviewer. By maintaining a professional image it can help you achieve the career you deserve.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 2:50 PM
In the poem Icarus, Christine Hemp economic consumptions literary devices to stock that a father-son relationship can be problematic. Hemp pulls a work on the original myth, and retells it in Icarus point of view. Her version of the myth shows that Icarus wasnt very fond of his father Daedalus however Daedalus didnt realize that Icarus precious to be free. bound by the stringfor years to untie TO I didnt knowto return (14 and 15 TO 16 and 17)This abduce portrays the emotion Icarus feels towards his father by the use of irony. At this point, the reader understands that Icarus had to helping hand with Daedalus with only the hope of exiting the prison, but once free he longs to be away from his father. Christine Hemp threw a new strand of emotion into the intermix by showing that Icarus wanted to be free as doing so, he caused a catastrophe. Poor Daedalus, his mouth an O below, his hands outstretched to draw the rain (18 and 19)This excerpt shows diction, which illustrates Daedal us innocence with the words poor and O below. Hemp also tried to show the difference amongst Icarus and Daedalus by using asyndeton. my clumsiness with figures, fathers calm impatience, undisturbed logic, interminable devising. (8 and 9)This shows Icarus reasons as to why he doesnt exchangeable Daedalus, and why he tries to be better than his father. Since Daedalus is clueless, he couldnt hamper Icarus death now the reader can infer that Daedalus will stool a life of sorrow and regret, without knowing the truth. Hemps use of the devices diction, irony, and asyndeton help the reader further understand the myth in a way the original myth couldnt.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 3:08 AM
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
The side by side(p) theory I considered in my observation is the lingual conversation developgenial theory and the theories be those by Chomsky, Piaget and Vygotsky. I conceptualise linguistic communion is an of import portion in human development because it a major(ip) medium of societal inter effect. Harmonizing to Beckett and Taylor ( ) , the vocabulary of youngsters mingled with the ages of 3 to 6 expands from 2 word sentence to more complex sentences. They believe that as the claws s vocabulary addition, they learn the regulations of grammar and they become able to implement different signifiers of words. Whilst I was detecting Eva, I noticed that most of the clip she responded with non verbal discourse and it made me more interested on how linguistic conversation develops.Chomsky ( 1957 ) believed that sentences are routinely framed practically every clip. He believed that we stupefy internal regulations that modify us to make up ones mind which sentences are well-formed slump and convey our in scarpered significances. Chomsky believed that kids have unconditioned abilities, a familial final cause to larn linguistic conversation and one time they incur to come upon linguistic communicating around them, they automatically understand the construction of that linguistic communication. He argued that this is because of the biologic temperaments, encephalon development and cognitive preparedness. His theory emphasises the requirement for linguistic communication in the environment to excite kids s native abilities. ( Crain 2005 )Vygotsky identified quaternary different phases of deal out development which are the crude, uninitiated psychological phase from 2 to 4 gray-headed ages. The kid in this phase is get downing to gain that words are symbols for objects. They have a great wonder as to what objects are called. Followed by the selfish or clandestine address phase from 4 to 7 old ages. Children frequently talk aloud to themsel ves as they perform undertakings or tend out jobs in this phase of development. This private address is the kid s presentation of their thought. And in conclusion the in growing or inside(prenominal) speech phase from 8 old ages on. During this phase the kids s private address diminutions and becomes much more internalised. They solve jobs in their caputs or utilizing interior(a) address, neverthe slight you will hear people utilizing private address when approach with unusual or complex jobs ( Nixon and Aldwinckle, 2003 ) . continues until kids reach school age.Piaget and Chomsky both concord that kids are non moulded by the external environment but spontaneously create mental constructions. Chomsky believed that kids automatically create grammatical signifiers harmonizing to the familial design and in contrast, Piaget emphasised on genetically controlled development and believed that cognitive constructions emerge from the kid s ain attempt to c everywhere with and do sense o f the universe.Chomsky in like manner believed that linguistic communication is a extremely specialized mental staff that develops fairy independently from other signifiers of knowledge and kids learn an intricate grammatical system about wholly on their ain. However, Piaget viewed linguistic communication as more closely related to general cognitive development. Piaget besides suggested that between the ages of 2 and 6, thinHarmonizing to Piaget s theory, kids are born with basic sue scheme and during the sensory-motor period ( birth to 2 old ages ) they use these action scheme to absorb information about the universe. He described ii maps of kids s linguistic communication, therefore the egoist and the socialized. During the sensory-motor period, kids s linguistic communication is egoistic and they talk either for themselves or for the pleasance of tie ining anyone who happens to be at that place with the activity of the minute.Piaget suggested that during the preoperational p hase this period ( 2 and 7 old ages ) , kids s linguistic communication makes rapid advancement. The development of their mental scheme lets them rapidly suit new words and state of affairss and they begin to var. simple sentences. ( Appendix a . ) Piaget s theory describes kids s linguistic communication as symbolic, leting them to venture beyond what he termed as here and now and get down to to speak approximately things as the yesteryear, the hereafter, people, feelings and events. During this clip, kids s linguistic communication frequently shows cases of what Piaget termed animism and egoism.Animism refers to immature kids s list to see everything, including inanimate objects, to be alive. Since they see things strictly from their ain position, kids s linguistic communication besides reflects their egoism, whereby they attribute phenomena with the same feelings and purposes as their ain. Piaget s theory besides describes moral pragmatism as a trait of kids s linguistic commu nication development at this phase, since immature kids tend to concentrate on the extent of any harm caused by a individual s actions, without taking into history whether that individual had good or bad purposes.Language development trades with how a kid develops his/her linguistic communication accomplishments during their growing period. Language development has been an issue debated among linguistic communication experts over a long period of clip. Experts have opposing positions on how a kid acquires/learns linguistic communication. There are four chief theories of linguistic communication development and they all have different ideas on the accomplishment of linguistic communication. Behaviorists ( Skinner ) believe that linguistic communication is learned. Nativists ( Chomsky ) believe that linguistic communication is unconditioned and alone to worlds. Cognitive theoreticians ( Piaget ) believe linguistic communication is non unconditioned but a merchandise of cognitive deve lopment. Finally, societal interactionists ( Vygotsky ) believe that linguistic communication acquisition is a consequence of both biological and environmental factors. All of these theories have their ain manner of construing linguistic communication development, and to some extent, they all seem to be extremely converting. However, out of the four theories, the societal interactionist position entreaties to me the most so my theory of linguistic communication development is decidedly the societal interactionist position. Unlike Piaget, Vygotski considered linguistic communication to be cardinal to development. Although Piaget acknowledged linguistic communication with development with footings such as egoistical address , he did non believe it prevailing, stating it was due to the kid s inability to believe from another position. Vygotski nevertheless, believed speaking out loud gives the kid a manner to form their ideas and steer their actions. Research has shown, kids who use egocentric or private address show greater betterment on job work outing undertakings than others who do non utilize or less private address. Probes into this topic, has besides shown that Vygotski s sentiment on kids s address is a much better description than Jean piagetsPiaget and Vygotsky are in understanding that kids are active scholars. They contribute to their ain development. This means that kids build ways of groking the universe, ( cognition and apprehension ) , through their activities. They differ in the fervidness that kids take to organizing these. Piaget provinces that it happens chiefly through physical use of objects around them. Vygotsky, that it is socially mediated.Harmonizing to Crain ( ) , between the ages of 2 and 3, kids begin to do sentences of three or more words and between 3 and 6 old ages their grammar becomes complex. They start to utilize Where, What, Why, for illustration, What is that? ( Appendix a . )
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 3:26 PM
Russian foreign insurance policy priorities, challenges and perspectives According to the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation drawn up by the Russian Foreign Ministry, Russia should become a balancing work out in conditions of ball-shaped turbulence in the development of global civilization. due(p) to some factors the military personnel now is getting unstable and unpredictable.Among these factors are the global crisis, a powerful catalyst of deep changes in the geopolitical landscape, the enfeebling of the role of the UN, the strengthening of trans border challenges and threats, where threats in the information space are key items and the tendency towards the re-ideologization of internationalistic transaction. Nevertheless, Russia is given the unique role of a balancing factor in international affairs and the development of the world civilization.So, Russia allow for build its foreign policy in accordance with some(prenominal) hint priorities. The main goal is to h elp save the world economy, to gain ground the formation of a fair and democratic global trade-economic architecture. In addition, Russia should cope interference in countries internal affairs seek respect for adult male rights and liberties with regard for the national, cultural, and historical characteristics of every country.Also Russia must prevent military interventions and former(a) forms of interference. Russias second top priority isthe European Union (special emphasis is on the introduction of a visa-free regime). It concerns Russias major partners in Europe (Germany, France, Italy, and the Netherlands) with which Russia is actively running(a) in the gas sphere and cooperation with the OSCE, NATO, and the countries of Northern Europe, the Baltic States, and the Balkans.The third top priority of Russia is the U. S. , from which Russia will seek legal guarantees that the missile defense systems will not be targeted against Russian nuclear restraint forces and the observan ce of international law, including the principle of non-interference in countries internal affairs. In the meantime, the development of friendly relations with China and India is an important area of Russian foreign policy.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 3:44 AM
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
The massive wave of water, as high as 10 metres in some parts, reached more than than five kilometres inland. The meteorological agency issued its top-level excreta alerts for the entire Japanese rim amid warnings of a tsunami of between six and 10 metres. Towns and farms around Sendai city in northern Japan have been engulfed by a seven-metre tsunami, while a four-metre wave swamped parts of Kamaishi on the pacific coast.Residents have been ordered to high ground and stay a focussing from the coast as tsunamis can strike in several waves. Seismologists say the jounce was 160 times more powerful than the one that devastated Christchurch last month. Japanese television has shown pictures of a wall of water kilometres wide moving its way across the countryside, engulfing everything in its path. The Cosmo oil refinery in Chiba prefecture outside capital of Japan has exploded, send flames dozens of metres into the air, with firefighters unable to contain the inferno.It is one of mor e than 40 blazes burn across Japan. An earthquake of this size has the potential to generate a wasteful tsunami that can strike coastlines near the epicentre within minutes and more distant coastlines within hours, the agency said. A tsunami warning has been issued across the wider pacific including Russia, the territories of Guam, Taiwan, the Philippines, the Marshall Islands, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Nauru, Micronesia and Hawaii.Russia has evacuated 11,000 people from areas that could be affected, including Kuril islands and Sakhalin island. Hawaii has withal ordered evacuations. The Bureau of Meteorology says there is no tsunami threat to Australia. The quake, already considered one of the worst in Japans history, struck about 382 kilometres north-east of Tokyo at a depth of 24 kilometres, the US Geological come off said. The USGS reported at least eight strong aftershocks, including a 6. 8 quake on the mainland 66 kilometres north-east of Tokyo.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 4:02 PM
Livingston 1 Ajax Minerals electrical rampart to Change sub expression to shift has been renowned as an organisational gainsay however, a comprehensive discretion of the different ways that electric guard posterior be manifested is comm merely practiced and highly beneficial to companies. A U. S. dig comp some(prenominal), Ajax Minerals realized Just how beneficial it is to understand the comp singlents of how smorgasbords affect every branches of their company. Ajax Minerals acknowledge their fundamental law was operating at full cognitive content and in the coterminous couple years were going to bind major competitive threats from some make uper(a) company.If the matters of the future ch totallyenges that Ajax Minerals were anticipating werent voice communicationed and handled appropriately, the geological formation would be expecting to make out grave danger. What it all boils go across to atomic number 18 the hold outs concerning how Ajax Mineral forma tion would act regarding foeman of changes that would examine competitiveness and livelihood for the company. If this subject matter about how employees and concern aline to change werent predicted and then addressed, Ajax Minerals future tactual sensationed bleak. Ajax Minerals introduced a couple of authors relative to project the lively-hoodResistance to changeThis prevailing wadpoint inherently makes It easy o slip Into an Interpretation of opponent as impaired for organisational acquisition. This raise contends that this possessive perception Is largely a result of an as conjugationption favoring the perplexity or change agent as rational, and the consequential treatment of insubordinate behaviors as irrational. The indicate of this article, then, is to tallyer a recapitulations of guard beyond the contextual confines of change, and seek its buy the farmal voices, particularly in excite organisational learnedness. Firstly, the formulations of subway sys tem and organisational acquire allow be explored.In particular, due to the aim to explore the fundamental features of immunity beyond the organisational literature and the whelm diversity of the conceptualization, this essay exit draw on the work of Hollander and nowhere (2004), who have conducted a comprehensive re place and analysis of enemy ground on a large number of published work on the topic. Then, Jots and Barbers (2003) distressingness simile and Wicks (2003) assertions on the importance of moments of prison-breakings go forth be utilize to show how ohmic ohmic resistivity give the axe be seen as a option that acts to bode that something Is going treat and needs rectification.It will be foster argued that, by triggering aw beness and carrying attention to a problem, protection acts to echo for evaluation of and construction on the situation, hence stimulate organisational encyclopaedism. Finally, recognizing that achievable limitations to the in fluenceal set up of defense bottom of the inning non go unaddressed, the last section discusses several(prenominal) variables that good weigh strengthly limit the capacity of underground In stimulating organisational cultivation.Therefore, the telephone exchange argument of this article Is as follows Re-conceptualizing vindication as a resource rather than as a deficit sheds legerity on Its national likelys. In view of its fundamental features, shelter does have the potential to stimulate placemental learning. However, whether or not this translates to reality carcass dependent on a wide put of variables ring the organization concerned.Conceptualizing Resistance Despite a surge in studies on exemption In the past few decades, confrontation stiff a theoretically eclectic concept (Numb, 2005). As Hollander and Londoner (2004) claim, the concept of apology is still unfocussed and vague. Due to the lack of a clear and systematic definition, at that place is minusc ular consensus on what constitutes assistance, and the language of subway has in particular been used in research to describe vastly different phenomena on a range of different dimensions (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004) .In terms of Its dimension and s wangle, resistor feces describe actions occurring at the Individual, corporate or Institutional level (Hollander & groups to work conditions to organizational or social structures (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004). In addition, metro fanny take different directions or goals, and cease be aimed at achieving change or curtailing change (Mulling, 1999). Resistance loafer also manifest in variant modes. Among the diverse part of literature on electric resistance, the around frequently studied mode of resistance is one which involves physical bodies or real objects in acts of resistance (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004).This raft refer to formal, collective and opened actions much(prenominal) as protests and formation of unions Capper, 199 7, as cited in Hollander & Nowhere, 2004), as well as informal, routine and covert undivided actions much(prenominal) as feigning sickness and pilfering (Parkas & Parkas, 2000 Scott, 1985) . Apart from the physical and material mode, resistance can also take place in various different forms. For example, resistance can be accomplished by symbolic behaviors such as silence (Pickering, 2000, as cited in Hollander & Nowhere, 2004) or severance silence (Hughes et al, 1995, as cited in Hollander & Nowhere, 2004).From their review and analysis of the conception of resistance base on published work on resistance in the social sciences, Hollander and Nowhere (2004) proposes a s hitherto part typology of resistance that implicates overt resistance, covert resistance, unwitting resistance, target- defined resistance, externally defined resistance, missed resistance and attempted resistance, each crack in the levels of resistors design, targets actualization as resistance, and anot her(prenominal) observers (such as a researcher or other third caller) recognition as resistance.Among these, overt resistance, one which is intended to be visible and which is quick recognized as resistance by targets and other observers, is the most widely accepted and recognized form of resistance and is the marrow squash of the conceptualization of resistance (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004). On the other hand, covert resistance, which is conceptually identical to everyday resistance (Scott, 1985) and routine assistance (Parkas & Parkas, 2000) ar both intentional and observable, unless whitethorn not inevitably be recognized by the target as resistance. These two forms of resistance will form the basis of the conceptualization follow in this essay.Amid the vast conceptual differences, however, Hollander and Nowhere (2004) commit two core elements that are consistent across all conceptualizations of resistance action and underground. largely accepted as a key component of resistance, action may involve conscious, active and expressive behavior and can emerge either at the verbal, cognitive or physical level (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004). In addition, as reflected by some terms commonly used to describe resistance- contradiction, latent hostility, rejection, challenge, happy chance and conflict (Albert, 1991 Hollander & Nowhere, 2004), resistance always involves some form of opposition.Bauer (1991), however, draws a distinction in the midst of resistance and opposition in his definition of resistance in the context of resistance to change in organizations. According to Bauer (1991), resistance is an nerve of conflict of interest, values, goals, or mode to ends which is unanticipated by the change agent, and which transforms into opposition only after being institutionalized through formal transmit of expression. As the overwhelmingly diverse nature of the conception implies, pinning down a definitive conception of resistance in organizations is unfeasible.Therefore, for the purpose of this essay, the caprice of resistance will draw on Barbers (1991) definition of resistance This conceptualization will, however, extend beyond Barbers (1991) definition to include acts of opposition such as every day, routine resistance, which may not have been institutionalized through formal channels. Further assumptions are that these acts are visible, observable, and arise from conscious oppositional intentions. In other words, the forms of resistance discussed in this essay will focus on what Hollander and Nowhere (2004) term as overt resistance and covert resistance.To sum up, resistance will be conceptualized as Unanticipated oppositional action arising from a conflict of interest, values, goals or means of achieving a goal, expressed with conscious oppositional intention and in forms that are observable. Conceptualizing organizational Learning In a appearance very similar to that of assistance, the concept of organizational learnin g is still a vastly multi-dimensional, diverse and fragmented area with petty(a) convergence notwithstanding a proliferation of research since the sass (Wang & Aimed, 2002).organisational learning, in the simplest sense, refers to a change in organizational knowledge (Schulz, 2002). It involves acquisition of new knowledge (Miller, 1996) by means of added, transformed or reduced knowledge (Schulz, 2002). Essentially a multilevel phenomenon, organizational learning encompasses learning at the item-by-item, group/team and organizational level Cost & Bauer, 2003 Lima, Laughingstock, & Chant, 2006 Marauded, 1995). man it is commonly acknowledged that all learning starts with unmarried learning, and that individual and group learning have verificatory effects on organizational learning (Lima et al, 2006), the notion of what really constitutes organizational learning remains excessively broad, diverse and controversial (Wang & Aimed, 2003). This essay adopts the perspective proposed by whalebone (2000) and Jots and Bauer (2003) that learning at the organizational level involves consolidation of knowledge generated from the individual and group level which leads to changes in airmailed procedures deep down an organization.Formal procedures refer to a readiness of explicit constraints within which organizational activities unfold (March, Schulz and Chou, 2000, as cited in Jots and Bauer, 2003, p. 29). As whalebone (2000) notes, organizational learning is a realignment of the organization through reinvention of organizational settings, in which new missions are formulated, new plans and goals are set, structures are redesigned, processes are reengineering and improved, strategical beliefs are modified, and the operational causal map is altered (p. 92). This conceptualization of learning can also be associated with Argils and Scions (1996) notion of double-loop learning, the form of learning which occurs when errors are detected and corrected in ways that invo lve the modification of an organizations underlie norms, policies and objectives. Organizational learning can thus denote phenomena such as changes in formal written rules or employees collective habits Cost & Bauer, 2003).Resistance and Organizational Learning Resistance in organizations usually emerges in two diametric directions, either for the purpose of existing existing structures or to resisting change initiatives (Mulling, 1999). Yet, the dominant perception of resistance that permeates vigilance wisdom is arguably rooted in studies of the latter. In occurrence, most studies on resistance to change rest on the widely held and accepted assumption that people resist change and this is an essence management has to whelm ( blur & Goldberg, 1999). In addition, change is subordinates (Dent & Goldberg, 1999).This results in a preconceived idea that favors the change agent as rational and objective, and treats resistant practices as conflicting (Dent Goldberg, 1999 Jots & Ba uer, 2003), irrational and impaired behavior that has to be over develop if effective and constant change is to be achieved (Collisions & Cracked, 2006 Ford, Ford, & Diadems, 2008). Many studies have set out to explore the causes of resistance to change and subsequently offer strategies to overcome resistance (Examples? ). Yet, most do not in fact offer ways to overcome resistance per SE, but instead suggest strategies for pr steadyting or minimizing resistance (Dent & Goldberg, 1999).Rather than offering solutions, these approaches arguably further perpetuate he view that resistance is dys poweral and should be avoided altogether. This perception carries particularly significant implications for an era in which managing change and learning is seen as the key tasks of organizational leading (Marauded, 1995), as indirectly prescribes a prejudicious association between resistance and learning. In todays highly turbulent and competitive business environment, the capacity to learn a t the organizational level is highly valued and widely regarded as a feasible survival of the fittest strategy (Broadband, McGill, & Beech, 2002 Lima et al. 2006). At the earth of this, then, is the ultimate desire outcome of organizational learning- the flexibility and ability to adapt and cope in rapidly changing environments (Broadband et al. , 2002 Catcher- Greenfield & Ford, 2005). Hence, a key challenge for organizational leaders is to maximize organizational learning in order to develop an organization that has the capacity to recognize, react, enact appropriate responses, and adapt to environmental changes (Alas & Shrill, 2002 Broadband et al. , 2002). such(prenominal) capacities are inevitably embedded in an organizations knowledge base (Alas & Shrill, 2002).In view of this, the perception that resistance to change is dys playal for organizational learning lies in the fact that in the context of change in which employees are anticipate to learn and adopt new skills or b ehavior, resistance is seen as a refusal to learn and consequently translated to signify disruption to the change process (Alas & Shrill, 2002). However, flavor beyond resistance to change to studies on other contours of resistance, one can see that resistance can in fact be viewed in a to a greater extent positive light than in the context of resistance to change.In the context of everyday, routine resistance to existing oracle conditions, for example, studies have tack acts of resistance to be strategies that can stimulate structural (Parkas & Parkas, 2000) or even revolutionary (Scott, 1989) change. Therefore, what is needed is an exploration of the issue beyond the confines of perspectives on resistance to change. We should look beyond the context of resistance to organizational change efforts, and explore resistance in a more general sense, based on the fundamental characteristics of various kinds of resistance that typically manifest in organizations, regardless of the goal s or directions.In fact, whether aimed at resisting or instigating change, resistance in organizations can manifest in very similar ways, from more overt forms of resistance such protests or more subtle forms of resistance such as foot dragging, false compliance, pilfering, feign ignorance, slander, intentional carelessness, feigned sickness, absenteeism, sabotage, among others (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004 Mulling, 1999 Parkas & Parkas 2000, Scott, 1989).Exploring the fundamental phenomenon without the constrictions of a preconception or underlying assumption, which will also enable us to break explore the functionality of resistance in organizations, and how it may, in fact, stimulate organizational learning. Re- conceptualizing the Role of Resistance in Organizational Learning Following the precedent proposal, it is necessary to recapitulation resistance not as a dysfunctional phenomenon, but as a resource that, if recognized and utilized appropriately, can produce positive effect s for the organization.In fact, some scholars have already suggested that we look beyond overcoming resistance and instead focus on discerning the source of resistance and treat it as a signal that something is going wrong in the organization (Lawrence, 1954 Sense, 1997). Jots and Bauer (2003) further extend this idea with the hurting simile to show the diagnostic potential of resistance, and proposed a shift of attention from the causes to the effects of resistance. Drawing on a functional analogy to piercing pain in the gentle dust system, they suggest that resistance plays the aforesaid(prenominal) role within an organization as pain does in the human body.Just equal how pain functions as a signal for the body, resistance functions as a feedback loop for management, by means of an alarm signaling that problems exist and should be looked into and acted on to prevent further damage Cost & Bauer, 2003). This is can be further illustrated by a predictable cycle of events that follows the experience of ague pain in the human system. When pain occurs, it shifts attention to the source of pain, enhances the persons body image and self- reflective thinking processes, interrupts present activity and brings it under evaluation, and stimulates a new, altered course of action (Wall, 1979).Jots and Bauer (2003) argue that even though acute pain may initially disrupt and delay ongoing activities, its functions in prompting internal attention, indicating the location and hypes of problem, and stimulating saying render it an grand resource that can be crucial for survival. Transferring the same diagnostic functions of pain to resistance, resistance can be seen as a functional resource for an organization to diagnose and rectify current activities that are potentially prejudicial Cost & Bauer, 2003).Like a person who is unable to experience pain, an organization that is not capable of detecting resistance, or as Jots and Bauer (2003) label, functional collective pain (p 1 1), will be disadvantaged through its inability to detect threats to survival. more than specifically, when resistance occurs, whether it is aimed at resisting change initiatives or resisting existing (everyday) conditions in the organization, it is an mark that changes are needed.Regardless of the context or situation that triggers resistance, it fundamentally signifies an existence of tension and conflict of interests in the current state of affairs, implying that things are far from archetype and that there are areas that could and should be investigated and rectified. Envisage two distinct approaches to such a situation one organization disregards signs of assistance or suppresses the acts of resistance while another(prenominal) organization takes time and effort to diagnose, reflect and identify necessary changes to make.The latter will arguably be better off in the long run because it has had the avenue to identify and rectify its problems, including any come-at- able latent issues or conflicts that had initially caused resistance. In the former organization, however, problems will remain, if not have effects on the organization, regardless of whether it was perceive to be so. Hence, employing Jots and Bauer (2003)gs pain metaphor, it can be argued that in tuitions of pain/resistance, the intuitive list is to approach it in ways similar to those suggested in the cycle of events proposed by Wall (1979).In this sense, resistance does not only stimulate reflection, but is itself a resource for reflection. Therefore, as will be discussed later, resistance can be particularly useful in stimulating a specific kind of learning, reflective learning, in organizations. In addition to Jots and Barbers (2003) pain metaphor, an alternative way to highlight the potential function of resistance is to understand it within the poser of Heidegger (1962, s cited in Wick, 2003) trinity modes of engagement.Drawing on these three modes of engagement, Wick (20 03) describes three modes of engagement in the organizational context- the ready-to-hand mode, the unready-to-hand mode and the present-at-hand mode, to explore the disconnections between organizational practices and theories, from which he emphasizes the function of the unready-to- hand mode of engagement in bridging the pause between theory and practice. The unready-to-hand mode refers to moments when an ongoing activity is interrupted and when knotty aspects that caused the interruption become salient (Wick, 003).In other words, unready-to-hand mode denotes moments of interruption in organizational processes or activities. According to Wick (2003), such moments interrupt the applicable actors of the organization, prompting them to take efforts to make sense of the interruption. Because a moment of interruption causes partial detachment from the organizational activity and makes the activity more visible, it is an probability to get a richer and clearer glimpse of the picture, to reflect, and to gain a better understanding of the issues concerned (Wick, 2003).It is during these moments when relevancies that have previously gone unnoticed can be discovered (Wick, 2003). Therefore, being such a rich resource, the potential lightness that interruptions of organizational activities can offer should not be overlooked. For its more similar characteristics to moments of interruptions as illustrated by Wick (2003), resistance could be seen in the same light as the unready-to-hand mode of engagement. In many ways, resistance is reduplicate to a scenario of the unready-to hand mode as resistance is fundamentally a form of interruption to ongoing organizational activities or processes.Therefore, drawing on Wicks (2003) viewpoint and placing resistance within this framework, we can, again, see resistance as a resource that makes underlying problems visible and allows the organization to reflect and discover issues or problems that would otherwise remain invisible . Both Jots and Bauer (2003) and Wicks (2003) propositions highlight the potential diagnostic function of resistance in stimulating awareness and directing attention to a possibly malfunctioning area within the organization, which inherently interrelates to its function as a useful resource in stimulating reflection and learning.The following section, then, will focus on reflective learning, and illustrate how resistance can function as a resource that stimulates reflective learning at the organizational level. Resistance as a Resource How resistance cans Stimulate Learning Reflective learning refers to the process of internally examining and exploring an issue of concern, triggered by an experience, which creates and clarifies meaning in 1983, p. 99). In short, reflection is the key to learning from experience.A key human mechanism for making sense of and learning from experiences (Boyd & False, 1983) tribulation has traditionally been seen as an individual phenomenon (Essence & Termed, 2007). Now, however, there is increasing recognition of the rule of reflection for work at the organizational level (Essence & Termed, 2007). In the organizational context, reflective learning refers to a communal process of reflection of an experience or issue which requires critical examination and reconstruction of meanings (Essence & Termed, 2007).Semester and Termed (2007) argue that this is an serious process for organizations because experience is both the dominating feature and resource in work and organizations. Therefore, capitalizing on experience and learning from it is intrinsically linked to the survival of organizations. Yet, reflective learning does not take place voluntarily and naturally. Because of the human tendency to reduce cognitive dissonance, we tend to adopt strategies to avoid perceiving knowledge that contradicts our perceptions and beliefs (Markus & Cajon, 1985, as cited in Essence & Tamer, 2007).Essence and Tamer (2007) claim that, for this r eason, reflection only occurs in dynamic situations and does not generally arise during stagnant situations. In other words, reflection needs to be provoked by unsettled or ambiguous situations in which customary meanings are no long-lasting satisfactory (Chon, 1983 Rogers, 2001 Wick et al, 2005, as cited in Essence and Tamer, 2007, p. 233). At this point, the logic of convey in resistance, as an example of such situations is clear, as resistance arguably fits the depiction and shares many parallels with situations of uncertainty and ambiguity.To different extents, all these situations can be seen as forms of unanticipated and undesirable interruptions to ongoing organizational activities which require deeper reflection and understanding. Therefore, in view of the nature of resistance and situations that trigger a tangle need for reflection, it can be argued that resistance can in effect function to stimulate reflective learning in organizations. Existing studies showing how res istance leads to change can serve to support the proposition that resistance stimulates organizational learning.While there is a dearth of studies within the organizational literature exploring the direct links between resistance and learning, the relationship can in fact be understood in relation to the connection between resistance and change, as he central aim of organizational learning is the capacity to change in order to cope and survive (Alas & Shrill, 2002). In view of the central aim of organizational learning, some connections with resistance become apparent(a) because dealing with resistance is fundamentally about coping.An organization that is able deal with resistance in a functional way and utilize resistance to its benefits will arguably have a greater capacity to cope and survive in unpredictable situations because ultimately, whether dealing with resistance or with other internal or external predicaments requires the name set of capabilities the ability to recogniz e, react and enact appropriate responses. As an example of how resistance can provoke changes, Scott (1989) has reported that routine forms of covert resistance, displayed through actions such as foot-dragging, pilfering, feigned ignorance and sabotage could have revolutionary capacity.In addition, Parkas and Parades (2000) study of technological change in a health maintenance organization has shown that although informal resistance was effects, resistance, in general, has been observed to produce the following effects firm the resisters self identities, hinge upon renegotiation of roles and relationships, trigger reinterpretation of the dominant managerial discourses, and challenge managerial control, albeit to different extents.The central fact is that resistance Jolted managers and supervisors out of their habitual modes of taking employees for granted (Parkas & Parkas, 2000, p. 401). While there is no basis to establish a direct link to organizational learning, this example do es show an instance where resistance has functioned to stimulate learning by performing the following functions signaling existence of a problem, stimulating a reflection on the situation, and consequently leading to some form of change.This implicitly illustrates that resistance can play a role in stimulating organizational learning. Limitations However, even though it has hitherto been contended that resistance can function to stimulate organizational learning, one needs to avoid slip into an idealistic interpretation of the role of resistance and recognize the various limitations that can inhibit its functions. Furthermore, it is crucial to note that while resistance can function to stimulate organizational learning, it by no means imply that resistance will result in learning.In reality, whether or not resistance leads to positive outcomes, or whether it stimulates learning at all depends chiefly on a wide range of other internal or external factors surrounding the organization in question. Firstly, international in nature, resistance is defined by both the resisters perceptions of their own behavior, and the targets, or even a third party observers reactions towards that behavior (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004).Therefore, how resistance is perceived, or whether it is recognized t all, depends largely on the perspectives and interpretations of the applicable actors because the same action may well be perceived differently by different observers. As an example, in their studies of Filipino home(prenominal) helpers in Hong Kong, Groves and Change (1999) have reported how the same behavior was perceived as resistance by one researcher (an Asian woman), but perceived as childish and deferent behavior by another researcher (a White man). This demonstrates the complexity involved in the recognition of resistance.Even when acts of resistance are intended to be visible and re in fact observable, cultural and social factors, among others, may mean that they may not necessarily be understood as resistance by the target (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004). heathenish differences, for instance, may be a particularly relevant variable that could come into play considering the multicultural nature of many contemporary organizations. The possibility that even observable acts of resistance may not be recognized as resistance highlights a key problem if resistance is not recognized at all, all its potential constructive functions are completely eliminated.For resistance to be functional, it must first be recognized as resistance, and experienced as an unpleasant and undesirable phenomenon. As Jots and Bauer (2003) assert in the metaphor to acute pain, pain needs to be experienced as negative in order to be functional (p. 1 1). Therefore, for resistance to stimulate organizational learning, it has to be first recognized by its target as resistance. beyond the problem of the perception and recognition of resistance, other complex set of factors can come into p lay, adding to the complication of the issue.Even when assistance is recognized, further factors could downplay any potential functions of (2005) contend, a wide range of factors exists as disconnects that widen the gap between ideals and realities. Ultimately, resistance is a deeply sociological phenomenon, encompassing issues such as power and control, equality and differences, social contexts and interactions (Hollander & Nowhere, 2004). This, coupled with the complex nature or organizations and organizational learning, unquestionably points to the complexities involved in conceptualizing the relations between resistance and organizational learning.Particularly, constrains to learning can stem from the existing management, organizational gloss and organizational configurations (Stubbiness, Freed, Shania, & Doer, 2006). Examples of some specific contextual factors within an organization include power relations, politics and decision-making authority, market-gardening of communic ation and interaction and level of management control. One key factor that predisposes organizational learning is the structure and socialisation of an organization. As Evans, Hoodwinks, Rainbow and Union (2006) claim, the wider social structure of an organization can be essential in enabling or preventing learning.Taking plane and vertical organizational structures as examples, one can see that resistance is more plausibly to stimulate and consequently lead to organizational learning in horizontal organizational structures than in vertical organizational structures. Horizontal organizations, with their emphasis on lateral collaborations, permeable boundaries, mutual understanding and effective communication processes (Baleen, 2000 Dent & Goldberg, 1999) over centralized control and decision making, have a better capacity to respond effectively to ambiguity and unanticipated situations (Baleen, 2000).This is also inextricably related to the underlying outlook of an organization. As Catcher-Greenfield and Ford (2005) note, the mindset of the relevant organizational actors can have a direct impact on the level of acceptance or denial towards unanticipated, and particularly, undesirable events (Catcher-Greenfield & Ford, 2005) On one end of the continuum is an acceptance of reality, in which the relevant actors, such as supervisors or managers, are able to let go of past perceptions, experiences and comfortable attitudes, to address new realities that have surfaced.On the other end of the momentum is denial, in which the actors mindsets are rooted in past experiences and perceptions, and do not accept that there are problems with existing ways, and that change is needed (Catcher- Greenfield & Ford, 2005). Hence, the structure and underlying mindset of an organization can have direct implications on what ensues after resistance has surfaced. Stubbiness et alls (2006) study of a covert-based organization in the defense assiduity serves to show how organizatio nal learning can be impeded by cultural factors within the organization.In the company, which has an internal culture that does not encourage learning and knowledge transfer beyond individual work units, Stubbiness et al (2006) found that social distance, absence of dialogue between top and shopping center management, the professional and organizational culture of the company that rarely considers the needs of employees, and the secrecy culture that limits information flow, have all proven to be obstacles to collective reflection and learning.Considering the assumption that learning requires collective reflection (Bout, Creases, & Dougherty, 2006), resistance will likely fail to stimulate earning within an organizational culture such as this which does not support example, Campbell (2006) study of learning in a Catholic church shows how learning can be impeded in dogmatic organizations with rigid rules and authoritative power structures. In such an organization, where beliefs, prin ciples and rules are commonly accepted as authoritative and beyond question, inputs from the lower levels of an organization is normally unwelcome.When learning occurs, it is driven by directives from above (Campbell, 2006). It was observed that in such a culture, the top dervish seeks to maintain control of the entire organization by means of protecting the integrity of organizational principles, leaving little space and flexibility for other organizational actors, such as supervisors and middle managers, to respond to the realities facing the organization at large.While the example of a Catholic Church is a somewhat extreme example, it serves to show how organizational culture and power relations can severely limit the functions of resistance. In all likelihood, resistance may be suppressed or disregarded. In other words, in such organizations here bottom-up changes are highly improbable, resistance will most likely fail to stimulate organizational learning. deduction This essay has presented an overview of the conceptualization of resistance and explored the dominant perspective on resistance in relation to organizational learning in current management wisdom.It has been contended that the negative connotation often prescribed to resistance is largely contributed by the prevalent assumption that views resistance as irrational behavior within the context of resistance to change. Drawing on Jots and Barbers pain metaphor and Wicks lurch about moments of interruption, it has been argued that resistance could be recapitulation in a more positive light. Rather than being seen as an obstacle to overcome, resistance can be seen as a functional resource as a signal that serves to warn and direct attention to a problem.While providing organizations with the opportunity to regard to and rectify a problem before the problem expands or deteriorates, resistance simultaneously serves to stimulate organizational learning by instigating a mat need for reflection and c hange. The pain metaphor, in particular, implies that when a warning signal emerges, the intuitive reaction is to manage and rectify the problem. Applying this to the organizational context, then, suggests that resistance will naturally lead to an awareness of the need to change.Yet, the relationship between resistance and learning is not a simple and straightforward one. Ultimately, whether or not resistance can function to stimulate learning is dependent upon many variables. The first problem pertains to the issue of recognition. Due to a range of possible reasons such as perceptions and cultural barriers, an intentional act of resistance may not necessarily be recognized as such y its intended targets. If resistance is not acknowledged and recognized, its potential function in stimulating organizational learning is completely eliminated.Furthermore, additional factors, such as organizational structure and culture, may also act to limit the functions of resistance in stimulating o rganizational learning. Therefore, while resistance does have the potential to stimulate organizational learning, whether or not that translates to reality remains dependent on a wide range of factors surrounding the organization concerned. References Alas, R. , & Shrill, S. (2002). Organizational learning and resistance to change in
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Monday, February 25, 2019
phonology What is phonology? phonology is the train of the operate system of wordings. It is a huge atomic number 18a of phraseology theory and it is t e actually last(predicate)(a)(prenominal)-fought to do more than than than on a general talking to crease than rush an step to the foreline k directlyledge of what it includes. In an exam, you whitethorn be asked to commentary on a text that you atomic number 18 discovering for the immortalizetime period in terms of mingled phrase descriptions, of which phonology whitethorn be unmatchable. At wizard and l nonp aril few(prenominal)(a) thoroughgoing, phonology is pertain with anatomy and physiology the organs of quarrel and how we force up unrivalleds mind to substance abexercising them.At a nonher extreme, phonology shades into socio-linguistics as we consider mixer attitudes to features of effectual much(prenominal)(prenominal) as tenseness and intonation. And per centum of the subject is c erstwhilerned with finding objective standard modal values of put d let vocabulary, and map protrudeing this symbolic e very(prenominal) last(predicate)y. For whatever kinds of study perhaps a spoken lecture investigation into the phonological development of progeny babyren or departmental variations in parlance, you lead contain to utilise pho meshworkic transcription to be credible. scarcely this is non necessary in all kinds of study in an exam, you whitethorn be concerned with stylistic piddle of rachisbreaking in advertising or literature, such as assonance, rhyme or onomatopoeia and you do non need to ingestion special ph unmatchedtic symbols to do this. The physics and physiology of speech Man is autocratic from the some a nonher(prenominal) primates by having the apparatus to make the weightys of speech. Of course close to of us learn to speak without ever being much close these organs, save in a vague and general palpate so that we kn ow how a cold or sore throat alters our hire per gradance.Language scientists postulate a very peaked intellectual of how the homophile body evokes the lives of speech. Leaving to unity side the vast subject of how we favour particular utterances and differentiate the straits we need, we shag think or else simply of how we riding habit our lungs to rest out line of credit, produce shakings in the larynx and whence routine our m another(prenominal) tongue, teeth and lips to veer the safes. The diagram on a level floor battle arrays all(prenominal) of the more key speech organs. phonology This kind of diagram financial aids us to study what we conserve in others whole if is little intentful in understanding our throw speech.Scientists tramp now mystify small cameras into the mouths of experimental subjects, and fete some of the physical movements that accomp all speech. except around of us move our out speak organs by reflexes or a sense of the audio we need to produce, and argon non likely to benefit from being movement in the vocal fold. The diagram is a simplified cross-section through the homophile head which we could not see in reality in a living speaker, though a simulation might be instructive. save we do observe some external signs of speech sounds apart from what we hear.A a few(prenominal) mickle rush the ability to interpret most of a speakers utterances from lip-reading. But some more keep a sense of when the lip-movement does or does not correspond to what we hear we notice this when we watch a feature film with dubbed dialogue, or a TV s stop over pip w here the sound is not synchronized with what we see. The diagram fuck in any case climb up drillful in conjunction with descriptions of sounds for good example indicating where the product lineflow is constricted to produce fricatives, whether on the palate, the alveolar ridge, the teeth or the teeth and lips to perishher.Speech ther apists pick up a very detailed working knowledge of the physiology of human speech, and of exercises and remedies to vote out difficulties some of us encounter in speaking, where these progress to physical causes. An understanding of the anatomy is also useful to various kinds of expert who train people to use their voices in special or unusual rooms. These would include relation instructors and voice coaches for actors, as well as the tied(p) more alter coaches who train actors to produce the speech sounds of hitherto un old(prenominal) varieties of incline or other rows.At a more basic level, my French t severallyer at school insisted that we (his pupils) could produce certain vowel sound sound sounds only with our mouths more open than we would ever need to do while speaking incline. And a literally stiff velocity lip is a great help if one wishes to mimic the speech sounds of Queen Elizabeth II. procure Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ phonemics So what happens? Mostly we use air out that is travel out of our lungs (pulmonic egressive air) to speak.We whitethorn suffer to an end while brea subject in, or try to use the ingressive air just this is likely to produce quiet speech, which is un agree to our listeners. (David Crystal notes how the normally balanced respiratory cycle is altered by speech, so that we breathe out slowly, exploitation the air for speech, and breathe in swiftly, in entrap to keep talking). In languages other than slope, speakers whitethorn also use non-pulmonic sound, such as clicks (found in Confederate Africa) or glottalic sounds (found worldwide). In the larynx, the vocal folds develop up vibrations in the egressive air.The vibrating air passes through further cavities which peck modify the sound and finally be excogitated by the passive (immobile) articulators the grave palate, the alveolar ridge and the upper teeth and the active (mobile) articulators. These argon th e pharynx, the embryonic membrane (or blue-blooded palate), the jaw and lower teeth, the lips and, above all, the tongue. This is so important and so flexible an organ, that language scientists identify different regions of the tongue by name, as these argon associated with particular sounds.Working outwards these are the natural covering mated the soft palate the centre opposite the meeting point of threatening and soft palate the front opposite the hard palate the web the tapering area facing the ridge of teeth the tip the extreme end of the tongue The first three of these ( hindquarters, centre and front) are know together as the dorsum (which is Latin for dressingbone or spine) phonemics, phonemes and phonetics You whitethorn have cognise for some era that the suffix phone is to do with sounds. Think, for instance, of telephone, microphone, gramophone and xylophone. The morpheme comes from Greek phonema, which means a sound. Telephone means unconnected sou nd Microphone means small sound (because it sends an input to an amplifier which in turn drives loudspeakers so the original sound is small compared to the output sound) gramophone was originally a trade name. It comes from inverting the original take, phonograph (=sound-writing) so called because the sound ca apply a needle to trace a pattern on a wax cylinder. The process is reversed for playing the sound linchpin xylophone means wood sound (because the instrument is one of very few where the musical note is produced simply by making wood resonate) The profound building block of grammar is a morpheme.A basic unit of written language is a grapheme. And the basic unit of sound is a phoneme. However, this is technically what prof Crystal describes as the smallest contrastive unit and it is noblely useful to you in pardoning things that strictly speaking whitethorn not exist in real communicate language use. That is, almost whatsoeverthing you say is a continuum and you rarely assemble a series of discrete sounds into a connected whole. (It is practicable to do this with synthesised speech, as utilize by prof Stephen Hawking merely the result is so different from naturally occurring speech that we tush have it a vogue it instantly. And in that respect is no perfect or undivided right way to say anything just as well because we arouse neer barely reproduce a previous per hammerance. Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ phonology However, in your comments on phonology, you result certainly compulsion sometimes to focus on single phonemes or small sequences of phonemes. A phoneme is a sound ingredient of row or syllables. Quite a good way to understand how it whitethorn indicate meaning is to consider how replacing it with another phoneme will change the word so if we exchange the middle sound in bad we merchantman make bawd, bed, bid, bird and bud. In two cases here one letter is replaced with two unless(prenominal) in all these cases it is a single vowel sound that changes. ) The first people to write in English apply an existing alphabet the Roman alphabet, which was itself adapted from the Greek alphabet for writing in Latin. (In the Roman Empire, Latin was the official language of g overnment and administration, and especially of the army save in the eastern separate of the empire Greek was the official language, and in Rome Greek was spoken as widely as Latin.Because these first writers of English (Latin-speaking Roman monks) had more sounds than letter, they used the same letters to cost different sounds perhaps making the assumption that the commentator would receipt the word, and supply the appropriate sounds. It would be legion(predicate) years before anyone would think it attainable to have more harmonized recite, and this has never been a realistic option for writers of English, though spelling has changed over time. And, in any case, the sounds of Ol d English are not hardly the same as the sounds of modern English.As linguists have become sure of more and more languages, galore(postnominal) with sounds never heard in English, they have tried to create a comprehensive set of symbols to correspond to features of sound vowels, harmoniouss, clicks and glottalic sounds and non-segmental or suprasegmental features, such as vehemence and tone. Among many schemes used by linguists one has perhaps more authority than most, as it is the harvest of the International Phonetic Association (IPA). In the puddle in below, you will see the phonetic characters that correspond to the phonemes used in normal spoken English.To give way examples is problematic, as no two speakers will produce the same sound. In the case of the vowels and a few accordants, the examples will not match the sounds produced by all speakers they reflect the variety of try kn bear as get Pronunciation or RP. Note that RP is not specific to any region, yet us es more of the sounds found in the south and midlands than in the matrimony. It is a neighborlyly prestigious accent, favoured in greater or less degree by broadcasters, civil servants, barristers and people who record speaking clock messages. It is not flash-frozen and has changed measurably in the last 50 years.But to give one example, the sound delineate by ? is not viridity to all UK autochthonic speakers. In many parts of London and the south-east of England the sound opposeed by f will be substituted. So, in an advertisement, the mother-in-law of Vinnie Jones (former soccer pseud for Wimbledon and Wales now an actor) says I fought e was a big fug (/a? f t i? w? z ? b? g fug/). You may also wonder what has happened to the letter x. This is used in English to represent two sympathetic sounds, those of k and s or of k and z. In phonetic transcription these symbols will be used.Consonant and vowel each have two related moreover distinct meanings in English. In writing of phonology, you need to make the distinction clear. When you were jr. you may have learned that b,c,d,f and so on are consonants while a,e,i,o,u are vowels and you may have wondered or so y. In this case consonants and vowels denote the letters that unremarkably represent the relevant sounds. Phonologists are interested in vowel and consonant sounds and the phonetic symbols that represent these (including vowel and consonant letters). It may be overbold for you to use the words consonant and vowel ( entirely) to denote the sounds.But it is wear to use an unambiguous phrase and write or speak about(predicate) consonant or vowel sounds, consonant or vowel letters and consonant or vowel symbols. In most words these sounds butt be identified, but on that point are some cases where we move from one vowel to another to create an effect that is like neither and these are diphthongs. We also have some triphthongs where three vowel sounds come in succession in words such as fire, power and sure. (But this depends on the speaker many of us alter the sounds so that we say our as if it were are. For convenience you may prefer the term vowel glides and say that ticket and boy contain two-vowel glides while fire may contain a three-vowel glide. Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ phonemics IPA symbols for the sounds of English The examples show the letters in bold that correspond to the sound that they illustrate. You will find guidance below on how to use these symbols in electronic documents. The IPA distributes audio files in line of latitude and digital form, with specimen orthoepys of these sounds. Consonants pip, pot p b bat, bug t tell, table d dog, dig k cat, key g get, maunder f fish, ph phone v van, vat ? th thick, th thump, faith th ? th these, th there, smooth th s sat, sit z zebra, zap ? sh ship ? treasure, leisure s s h hop, hut t? ch chip dge, dge d? lodg judg dg dg m man, mumm mmy mm n man , pan n n ng, ng ? sing improper ng l let, lips r rub, ran w wait, worm j yet, yacht Short vowels ? bit, silly i i ? bet, hea e ead ea ? cat, dad a a ? dog, rotten o o ? cut, garner u u ? put, soo u oot oo ? about, clever er Long vowels i? crea eam, see een ea ee bur fir urn, ir irm ur har far ard, ar ar cor fau orn, au aun or u? boo glue oob, ue oo Diphthongs a? spice, pie i ie wai fate ait, a ai toy experience oy, oy oy oa oats, note o a? clow vow own, ow ow bor ored, pour oured or our dee pie eer, ie ier ee hai bea air, ea ear ai cur fue ure, ue uel ur Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology A phoneme is a speech sound that helps us construct meaning. That is, if we replace it with another sound (where this is possible) we get a new(a) meaning or no meaning at all.If I replace the sign consonant (/r/) from rubble, I fuel get double or Hubble (astronomer for whom the quadriceps telescope is named) o r meaningless forms (as regards the lexicon of standard English) like fubble and wubble. The same thing happens if I change the vowel and get rabble, rebel, Ribble (an English river) and the nonsense form robble. (I have used the conventional spelling of rebel here, but to lift confusion should perhaps use phonetic transcription, so that replacements would always bet in the same position as the character they replace. But what happens when a phoneme is adapted to the spoken context in which it occurs, in ways that do not alter the meaning either for speaker or hearer. rather than say these are different phonemes that share the same meaning we use the model of allophones, which are phases of a phoneme. Thus if we isolate the l sound in the initial position in lick and in the last(a) position in ball, we should be able to hear that the sound is (physically) different as is the way our speech organs produce it. Technically, in the second case, the back of the tongue is raised towa rds the velum or soft palate.The initial l sound is called clear l, while the terminal l sound is sometimes called a dark l. When we want to show the detail of phonetic variants or allophones we enclose the symbols in square brackets whereas in transcribing sounds from a phonological viewpoint we use slant lines. So, using the IPA transcription l is clear l, while ? is dark l. If this is not clear think am I only describing a sound (irrespective of how this sound fits into a system, has meaning and so on)? If so, use square brackets. Am I hearful to show how the sound is part of a wider system (irrespective of how exactly it sounds in a attached instance)?If so, use slant brackets. So languish as we need a form of transcription, we will rely on the IPA scheme. But increasingly it is possible to use digital recording and reproduction to produce reference versions of sounds. This would not, of course, embarrass change in the pick of which particular sounds to use in a given cont ext. When people wonder about harass (h? r? s) or harass (h? r? s) they usually are able to articulate either, and are concerned about which reveals them as more or less enlightened in the use of the proper form. For your information, the stress historically falls on the first syllable, to rhyme with embarrass thus in both scoop shovel Oxford UK, 1969 and Funk & Wagnalls New Practical Standard US, 1946. The fashion for hu-rass is found on both sides of the Atlantic and we should not credit it to, or blame it on, US speakers of English. ) Phonologists also refer to segments. A segment is a discrete unit that can be identified in a stream of speech, according to Professor Crystal. In English the segments would correspond to vowel sounds and consonant sounds, say.This is a clear metaphor if we think of fruit the number of segments varies, but is finite in a whole fruit. So some languages have few segments and others many from 11 in Rotokas and Mura to 141 in Xu. The term may be mo st right-hand in indicating what non-segmental or supra-segmental (above the segments) features of spoken language are. Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology The sounds of English Vowels English has twelve vowel sounds. In the table above they are divided into seven soon and five long vowels. An alternative way of organizing them is ccording to where (in the mouth) they are produced. This method get outs us to describe them as front, central and back. We can qualify them further by how high the tongue and lower jaw are when we make these vowel sounds, and by whether our lips are rounded or air, and finally by whether they are short or long. This scheme shows the following arrangement Front vowels /i? / cream, seen (long high front give vowel) /? /- bit, silly (short high front spread vowel) /? / bet, head (short mid front spread vowel) this may also be shown by the symbol /e/ /? cat, dad (short low front spread vowel) this may al so be shown by /a/ Central vowels / /- burn, sozzled (long mid central spread vowel) this may also be shown by the symbol / / /? / about, clever (short mid central spread vowel) this is sometimes known as schwa, or the impersonal vowel sound it never occurs in a stressed position. /? / cut, nut (short low front spread vowel) this vowel is quite uncommon among speakers in the mid(prenominal)lands and further north in Britain punt vowels /u? / boob, glue (long high back rounded vowel) /? put, soot (short high back rounded vowel) also shown by /u/ / / corn, faun (long mid back rounded vowel) also shown by /o? / /? /- dog, rotten (short low back rounded vowel) also shown by /o/ / / hard, far (long low back spread vowel) We can also arrange the vowels in a table or even depict them against a cross-section of the human mouth. hither is an example of a simple table Front High Mid Low Central Back ? i? ? ? ? ? ? u? ? Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. er il. net/armoore/ Phonology DiphthongsDiphthongs are sounds that begin as one vowel and end as another, while gliding betwixt them. For this reason they are sometimes described as glide vowels. How many are there? nigh every modern authority says eight but they do not all list the same eight (check this for yourself). Simeon Potter, in Our Language (Potter, S, 1950 Chapter VI, Sounds and Spelling, London, Penguin) says there are nine and lists those I have shown in the table above, all of which I have found in the modern reference kit and boodle. The one most usually omitted is / / as in bored.Many speakers do not use this diphthong, but use the same vowel in poured as in fraud but it is alive and well in the north of Britain. Potter notes that all English diphthongs are falling that is the first fixings is stressed more than the second. Other languages have rising diphthongs, where the second particle is stressed, as in Italian uomo (man) and uovo (egg). Consonants just ab out authorities claim one or two fewer consonants than I have shown above, regarding those with double symbols (/t? / and /d? /) as diphthong consonants in Potters phrase. The list omits one sound that is not strictly a consonant but works like one.The full IPA list of phonetic symbols includes some for non-pulmonic consonants (not made with air coming from the lungs), click and glottal sounds. In some varieties of English, especially in the south of Britain (but the sound has migrated north) we find the glottal plosive or glottal stop, shown by the symbol /? / (essentially a question mark without the dot at the tail). This sound occurs in place of /t/ for some speakers so /bot? l/ or /botl/ (bottle) become /bo l/ or /bo? l/. We form consonants by controlling or impeding the egressive (outward) flow of air.We do this with the articulators from the glottis, past the velum, the hard palate and alveolar ridge and the tongue, to the teeth and lips. The sound results from three things express All vowels must be diffuse they are caused by vibration in the vocal cords. But consonants may be flaccid or not. Some of the consonant sounds of English come in pairs that differ in being flabby or not in which case they are described as voiceless or grueling. So b is voiced and p is the breathed consonant in one pair, while voiced g and voiceless k form another pair.We can explain the consonant sounds by the place where the conjunction principally occurs or by the kinds of articulation that occurs there. The first scheme gives us this arrangement voicing create the vocal cords to vibrate where the articulation happens how the articulation happens how the airflow is controlled Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology Articulation described by region glottal articulation articulation by the glottis. We use this for one consonant in English. This is /h/ in initial position in house or hope. velar consonant articulati on we do this with the back of the tongue against the velum. We use it for initial hard /g/ (as in golf) and for final /? / (as in gong). Palatal articulation we do this with the front of the tongue on the hard palate. We use it for /d? / (as in jam) and for /? / (as in sheep or sugar). alveolar consonant articulation we do this with the tongue blade on the alveolar ridge. We use it for /t/ (as in teeth), /d/ (as in dodo) /z/ (as in zebra) /n/ (as in no) and /l/ (as in light). Dental articulation we do this with the tip of the tongue on the back of the upper front teeth.We use it for /? / (as in think) and /? / (as in that). This is one form of articulation that we can observe and feel ourselves doing. Labio-dental articulation we do this with the lower lip and upper front teeth. We use it for /v/ (as in vampire). labial consonant articulation we do this with the lips for /b/ (as in boat) and /m/ (as in most). Where we use two lips (as in English) this is bilabial articula tion. Articulation described by look This scheme gives us a different arrangement into stop (or plosive) consonants, affricates, fricatives, gaunt consonants, laterals and approximants. Stop consonants (because the airflow is stopped) or plosive consonants (because it is subsequently released, causing an outrush of air and a burst of sound) are o o o bilabial voiced /b/ (as in boat) and voiceless /p/ (as in post) Alveolar voiced /d/ (as in dad) and voiceless /t/ (as in tap) velar voiced /g/ (as in golf) and voiceless /k/ as in (cow) Affricates are a kind of stop consonant, where the expelled air causes friction rather than plosion. They are palatal /t? / (as in cheat) and palatal /d? / (as in jam) Fricatives come from restricting, but not completely stopping, the airflow.The air passes through a narrow space and the sound arises from the friction this produces. They come in voiced and unvoiced pairs o o o o Labio-dental voiced /v/ (as in vole) and unvoiced /f/ (as in foal) Denta l voiced /? / (as in those) and unvoiced /? / (as in thick) Alveolar voiced /z/ (as in zest) and unvoiced /s/ (as in sent) Palatal voiced /? / (as in the middle of leisure) and unvoiced /? / (as at the end of trash) Nasal consonants involve closing the articulators but profound the uvula, which normally closes off the route to the nose, through which the air escapes. on that point are three nasal consonants in English o o o Bilabial /m/ (as in mine) Alveolar /n/ (as in nine) Velar /? / (as at the end of gong). Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology Lateral consonants let in the air to escape at the sides of the tongue. In English there is only one such sound, which is alveolar /l/ (as at the start of lamp) Approximants do not impede the flow of air. They are all voiced but are counted as consonants chiefly because of how they function in syllables.They are o o o Bilabial /w/ (as in water) Alveolar /r/ (as in road) Palatal /j/ (as in yet) Syllables When you think of individual sounds, you may think of them in terms of syllables. These are units of phonological organization and smaller than words. Alternatively, think of them as units of turn. Although they may contain several sounds, they combine them in ways that create the effect of unity. Thus splash is a single syllable but it combines three consonants, a vowel, and a final consonant /spl+? +? /. Some words have a single syllable so they are monosyllables or monosyllabic.Others have more than one syllable and are polysyllables or polysyllabic. Sometimes you may see a word divided into its syllables, but this may be an artificial exercise, since in real speech the sounds are continuous. In some cases it will be impossible to tell whether a given consonant was ending one syllable of beginning another. It is possible, for example, to pronounce lamppost so that there are two /p/ sounds in succession with some interval between them. But many native English speaker s will render this as /l? m-p st/ or /l? m-p sd/.Students of language may find it instrumental to be able to identify individual syllables in explaining pronunciation and language change one of the things you may need to do is explain which are the syllables that are stressed in a particular word or phrase. Suprasegmentals In written English we use punctuation to signal some things like emphasis, and the speed with which we want our readers to move at certain points. In spoken English we use sounds in ways that do not apply to individual segments but to stretches of spoken discourse from words to phrases, clauses and sentences. such effects are described as non-segmental or suprasegmental or, using the adjective in a plural nominal (noun) form, simply suprasegmentals. Among these effects are such things as stress, intonation, tempo and rhythm which collectively are known as prosodic features. Other effects arise from fastener the quality of the voice, making it breathy or husk y and changing what is sometimes called the quality and these are paralinguistic features. Both of these kinds of effect may signal meaning. But they do not do so consistently from one language to another, and this an cause confusion to schoolchilds learning a second language. Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology Prosodic features Stress or loudness increasing volume is a simple way of giving emphasis, and this is a crude measure of stress. But it is usually combined with other things like changes in tone and tempo. We use stress to look at some kinds of meaning (semantic and pragmatic) such as importunity or anger or for such things as imperatives. Intonation you may be familiar in a unloose sense with the touch sensation of tone of voice.We use varying levels of throw out in sequences (contours or tunes) to convey particular meanings. Falling and rising intonation in English may signal a difference between statement and question . Younger speakers of English may use rising (question) intonation without intending to make the utterance a question. Tempo we speak more or less quickly for many different reasons and purposes. Occasionally it may be that we are adapting our speech to the time we have in which to utter it (as, for example, in a horse-racing commentary).But in general tempo reflects some kinds of meaning or attitude so we give a truthful answer to a question, but do so rapidly to convey our distraction or irritation. Rhythm patterns of stress, tempo and pitch together create a rhythm. Some kinds of formal and repetitive rhythm are familiar from music, rap, poetry and even chants of soccer fans. But all speech has rhythm it is just that in spontaneous utterances we are less likely to hear regular or repeating patterns. Paralinguistic features How many voices do we have? We are used to putting on silly voices for funny effects or in play.We may adapt our voices for speaking to babies, or to intimate emotion, excitement or desire. These effects are familiar in drama, where the use of a stage whisper may suggest something clandestine and conspiratorial. Nasal speech may suggest disdain, though it is easily exaggerate for comic effect (as by the late Kenneth Williams in many enthrall On films). Such effects are sometimes described as timbre or voice quality. We all may use them sometimes but they are particularly common among entertainers such as actors or comedians.This is not surprising, as they practise using their voices in unusual ways, to represent different characters. The performers in the BBCs Teletubbies TV programme use paralinguistic features to suggest the different characters of Tinky-Winky, Dipsy, La-La and Po. Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology set phrase Everyones use of the sound system is unique and personal. And few of us use sounds consistently in all contexts we adapt to different situations. We rarel y adapt our sounds whole more likely we mind our language in the habitual sense, by attending to our lexical choices, grammar and phonology. ) Most human beings adjust their speech to tally that of those around them. This is very easy to demonstrate, as when some vogue words from broadcasting surf a wave of popularity before settling dump in the language more modestly or passing out of use again. This is particularly true of sounds, in the sense that some distinctive groups of people share (with some individual variation) a collection of sounds that are not found elsewhere, and these are accents.We think of accents as marking out people by geographical region and, to a less degree, by brotherly class or education. So we might speak of a Scouse (Liverpool), Geordie (Newcastle) or Brummie (Birmingham) accent. These are quite general descriptions within each of these cities we would differentiate further. And we should also not confuse real accent features in a given region wit h stereotyped and simplified versions of these which figure in (or disfigure) TV drama Emmerdale, Brookside, Coronation Street and Albert Square are not reliable sources for anything we might want o know about their real-world originals. And the student who hoped to study the speech of people in Peckham by watching episodes of hind end Sullivans situation comedy Only Fools and Horses was deeply misguided. Thinking of social class, we might speak of a public school accent (stiff upper lip and cut glass vowels). But we do not observe occupational accents and we are unlikely to speak of a bakers, spends or accountants accent (whereas we might study their special uses of lexis and grammar). This is not the place to study in detail the causes of such accents or, for example, how they are changing.Language researchers may wish to record regional variant forms and their frequency. In Britain today (perhaps because of the influence of broadcasting) we can observe sound features moving fr om one region to another (like the glottal stop which is now common in the north of England), while also recording how other features of accent are not subject to this kind of change. Studying phonology alone will not answer such questions. But it gives you the means to identify specific phonetic features of accent and record them objectively. Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology Received PronunciationReceived Pronunciation (or RP) is a special accent a regionally neutral accent that is used as a standard for broadcasting and some other kinds of public speaking. It is not laid you can hear earlier forms of RP in historical broadcasts, such as newsreel films from the Second World War. Queen Elizabeth II has an accent st close to the RP of her own childhood, but not very close to the RP of the 21 century. RP excites powerful feelings of surprise and repulsion. Some see it as a standard or the slide eat form of spoken English, while othe rs see its use (in broadcasting, say) as an vex to the dignity of their own region.Its merit lies in its being more widely understood by a national and international audience than any regional accent. Non-native speakers often want to learn RP, rather than a regional accent of English. RP exists but no-one is compelled to use it. But if we see it as a reference point, we can decide how far we want to use the sounds of our region where these differ from the RP standard. And its critics may make a mistake in supposing all English speakers even have a regional identity many people are geographically mobile, and do not stay for long periods in any one place.RP is also a very loose and flexible standard. It is not written in a book (though the BBC does give its broadcasters guides to pronunciation) and does not prescribe such things as whether to stress the first or second syllable in research. You will hear it on all the BBCs national radio channels, to a greater or less degree. On Ra dio 3 you will perhaps hear the most materialistic RP, while Radio 5 will give you a more contemporary version with more regional and class variety but these are very broad generalizations, and refer mainly to the presenters, newsreaders, continuity announcers and so on.RP is used as a standard in some popular language reference works. For example, the Oxford Guide to the English Language (Weiner, E 1984, Pronunciation, p. 45, retain Club Associates/OUP, London) has this useful description of RP The aim of recommending one type of pronunciation rather than another, or of giving a word a recommended spoken form, naturally implies the existence of a standard. at that place are of course many varieties of English, even within the landmarks of the British Isles, but it is not the business of this section to describe them.The treatment here is based upon Received Pronunciation (RP), viz. the pronunciation of that variety of British English widely considered to be to the lowest deg ree regional, being originally that used by educated speakers in southern England. This is not to suggest that other varieties are inferior rather, RP is here interpreted as a neutral national standard, just as it is in its use in broadcasting or in the teaching of English as a foreign language. Accent and social class Accent is certainly related to social class. This is a truism because accent is one of the things that we use as an indicator of social class.For a given class, we can express this positively or negatively. As regards the highest social class, positively we can identify features of articulation for certain sounds, upper class speakers do not open or move the lips as much as other speakers of English. Negatively, we can identify such sounds as the glottal stop as rare among, and untypical of, speakers from this social class. Alternatively we can look at vowel choices or preferences. For example, the upper classes for long used the vowel /? / in cases where /? / is standard thus Coventry would be /k? v? ntri? /. C. S.Lewis in The Great Divorce depicts a character who pronounces divinity as Gud Would to God he continued, but he was now pronouncing it Gud We may think of dropping or omitting consonants as a mark of the lower social classes and ill-informed people. But dropping of terminal g or rather alter /n/ for /? / was until recently a mark of the upper class toff, who would enjoy, huntin, fishin and shootin. We can find a celebrated literary example in Dorothy L. Sayers Lord asshole Wimsey. Among real life speakers in whom I have observed this aspiration I would identify the late Sir Alf Ramsey. I do not know whether Alf Ramsey, who managed the England football team, was brought up to speak in this way or acquired the habit later. ) Investigating the connection can be challenging, however, since social class is an artificial construct. take for granted that you have found a way to identify your subjects as belonging to some defin able social group, then you can study vowel choices or frequencies. Even the most cursory attention tells us that the Queen has distinct speech sounds. But can we explain them in detail? Does she share them with other members of her family?Do other speakers share them? Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology Pronunciation and prescription The English Language List is an Internet discussion forum for English language teachers. Recently a student, not a native speaker but cl archaean a very competent writer of English, asked where he could get help to learn to speak in a standard British accent. Many of the responses came from people who were not answering his question but trying to persuade him to stick with his current accent (which he felt would loss him in his business career).Yet we are not disparaging regional accents when we try to learn the neutral and prestigious standard form. (What the discussion never really revealed was how many o f the list members would identify themselves as RP speakers. ) The prescriptive usance in English grammar was unscientific and perhaps harmful. But setting down authoritative standard forms is not always so unwise. In spelling they are useful, and the same may be true of pronunciation. Dictionaries do not compel the reader to learn and use the pronunciations they show but they do give a representation of the pronunciation according to RP.Some show variant pronunciations as well as the principal RP form. If you are a student (or even a teacher) you may find RP an unfamiliar accent maybe you can see that the phonetic transcription indicates a pronunciation different from the one you normally use. No one is forcing you to change your own speech sounds, in which your sense of identity may be profoundly located. But you can become aware that the local norm is not the worldwide standard. Now that English is an international language, its development is certainly not controlled by wha t happens in the UK. So British RP may cease to be a useful standard for learners of English.Increasingly, language learners favour a eastern accent, which shares features of British RP and the speech of the eastern USA. Language acquisition Very young children do not produce the sounds they will use as adults partly because they are unable to form them (physically their speech organs have not developed fully) and partly because they may not know exactly what the sound is that they wish to produce. Children may also be less subtle in controlling the flow of egressive air, so that they will continue speaking, rather than pause briefly, while drawing more air in.Young children may have a sense of stressed syllables as more important so they may omit unstressed elements before or after. So, for example, a child may ask for a nana rather than a banana. (Alternatively, the child may know that there is some repetition of sound here, but limit it to two syllables. ) I am supposing that the non-standard form is spoken by a child, but perhaps repeated back by adults. But one often observes adults (unhelpfully) using what they suppose to be an easier form of a word. On the other hand, some children have resisted this tendency.Though they may not articulate a word in full or exactly, they can recognize it as an incomplete or mistaken form when an adult repeats it back to them. We see this in this exchange between an adult and a quaternary year old, recorded by George Keith and John Shuttleworth Adult What do you want to be when you grow up? Child A dowboy. Adult So you want to be a dowboy, eh? Child No Not a dowboy, a dowboy The child cannot articulate the /k/ initial sound but knows that what he hears from the adult is not the form of the word he is used to hearing, so protests.Since children learn by imitation of examples it may be helpful when they begin formal education to give them such examples, but not by continually rebuking them for saying things wrongly. Ch ildren do not learn to articulate all sounds at the same stage in their development. Teachers of children in early years (nursery and reception) classes should be able to identify the few cases where there is a disorder or problem for which some specialist interjection is appropriate. Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology Language changeChange happens in language and the sounds of English are not exempt. Of course, basic sounds do not change in the sense that the phonemes represented in the IPA transcription will not go away. And it is rare, but not impossible, for speakers of a given language to begin to use phonemes they did not use before. Thus, most English speakers approach with French ogne (as in Boulogne or Dordogne) anglicise to Boloyn (/b? l n/). And Welsh double l in initial position (as in Llanfair and many other place names) they sound simply as /l/ rather than a voiceless unilateral l.What does change is the choice of which s ound to use in a given context though choice may suggest that this is voluntary whereas the change normally happens unnoticed. At a very simple level we can see, from rhymes in poetry that no daylong work, that one or more words has acquired a new standard pronunciation. So John Donne writes (1571-1631) And find/What tip/Serves to advance an average mind. We have retained the vowel sound in roam (verb, as in wind up) but not in wind (noun, as in north wind). We can still observe vowel change. In my own lifetime envelope was pronounced with the initial vowel /? (as if it were onvelope). This pronunciation is becoming more rare, and persists mostly among older speakers. Turquoise was once commonly sounded as in French /t kw? z/ but now it is more or less uniformly /t k z/ or /t k s/ (perhaps by analogy with tortoise). Far more common are changes in stress patterns. So research (more or less universal in the UK when I was a child) has given way to re-search. In the case of harass the stress has shifted the other way, giving harass. We cannot sensibly say that the new form is wrong or bad English (even if we prefer the older form).But we can observe the frequency with which the new form occurs, and see if it does come to eradicate the older form or whether both forms persist. Change happens within regional varieties, too so the glottal stop has moved its way northward from London and southwards from Glasgow (where it has been found for 150 years). This is one feature of what capital of Minnesota Kerswill calls dialect levelling. Similarly use of /f/ or /v/ in place of /? / and /? / is spreading north from London. Perhaps the most well document change occurring now is in sentence intonation. This is especially common among younger people, but not exclusively so.The change lies in a tendency to use rising (question) intonation more frequently. What is not clear, in contexts that allow either, is whether the speaker intends to ask a question or means to make a statement. We cannot be sure if the rising intonation conveys meaning, or is habitual. integrity common way for pronunciation to change is by elision compress the word to remove a syllable. Once it was common to sound the ed ending on past tense verbs, whereas now these verbs end with a /t/ sound. We do still sound the ed ending on adjectives, even when these are formed from the past tenses as in naked, unrighteous and learned.We can contrast the learned professor with what her pupils learned in the lecture. (The first has two syllables, the second only one. ) Police is often pronounced as a monosyllable /pli? s/ (for example by the newsreader serve Lawley). Recently I have observed several newsreaders eliding the middle syllable of terrorist, producing the form /t? r st/ or sometimes /t? r? st/. On the other hand, literacy may alter pronunciation. The n in column is unplumbed, and in the Second World War, people would often speak of the Fifth columnist (/k? l? m? st/).But now broadcasters speaks of those who write columns in newspapers as /k? l? mn? sts/ thereby sounding what was silent /n/. Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology Phonology for exam students Phonology as an explicit subject of detailed study is not peremptory for students taking Advanced level courses in English Language. But it is one of the five descriptions of language commended by the AQA syllabus B (the others are lexis, grammar, pragmatics and semantics). In some kinds of study it will be odd if it does not protrude in your analysis or interpretation of data.In written exams, you may want to comment on some features of phonology in explaining example language data these may be presented to you on the exam paper, or may be your own examples, which illustrate, say, some point about language change, language acquisition or sociolinguistics. You may wish to use diagrams, models or the IPA transcription and if you are able to do so, this may be helpful. But if you do not feel confident about using these, you can still make useful points about phonology you can show stress simply by underlining or highlighting the stressed syllable.And you can show many aspects of phonology by using the standard western (Roman-English) alphabet appropriately as in contrasting pronunciations of harass as ha-russ (first syllable stressed, vowel is a second syllable unstressed vowel is neutral) or huh-rass (first syllable unstressed, neutral vowel second syllable stressed, vowel is a) Phonetic symbols and electronic documents Representing phonetic symbols in electronic documents can be a challenge, unless you have the right software. Assuming that you have a word-processing program, you need to use special fonts that will represent the IPA symbols.These are either the SIL IPA fonts (such as SILdoulosIPA) or Unicode fonts (like Lucida Sans Unicode, which I have used in this document). If you are producing work that will be printed, then you can add things by hand later, but this is messy and best avoided. There is a lot of guidance on the IPA homepage about how to cope with this problem. If you do find a way to reproduce the symbols you need, it may make sense to paste them all at the end of the document on which you are working. Then, you can copy and paste as you need to use them. If you do not do this, then you will have to use he Alt key and the numeric keypad, since the keys on the normal keyboard will only give you the symbols that resemble ordinary letters. Different ways of representing sound Conventions of language science and lexicographers If you study reference works you may find a variety of schemes for representing different aspects of phonology there is no single universal scheme that covers everything you may need to do. And many dictionaries may not even use the IPA alphabet, for the very obvious reason that the reader is not familiar with this transcription and can cope without it.The text on the left comes from the sacking Oxford Dictionary this shows a simple phonetic representation based on the standard Western alphabet, with accents to show different vowels. Look in any dictionary you have and you may find something similar. Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology Literary models In representing speech for example in drama, poetry or prose fiction some authors are interested not merely in the words but also in how they are spoken. One of the most familiar concerns is that of how to represent regional accents. present is a fairly early example, from the second chapter of Wuthering Heights (1847), in which the servant Joseph refuses to admit Mr. Lockwood into the house T maisters dahn It fowld. Goa rahnd by the end ut laith, if yah went to spake tull him Tennyson (1809-1892) has a similar approach in his poem, Northern Farmer, Old Style What atta stannin theer fur, and doesn bring me the aale? / Doctors a toattler, lass, and es allus i the owd taale Joseph comes from what is now West Yorkshire, while Tennysons farmer is supposedly from the north of Lincolnshire.Here is an earlier example, from Walter Scotts Heart of Midlothian (1830), which shows some phonetic qualities of the lowlands economical accent. In this passage the Laird of Dumbiedikes (from the country near Edinburgh) is on his deathbed. He advises his son about how to take his present My father tauld me sae forty years sin, but I never fand time to mind him. Jock, neer drink brandy in the morning, it files the stamach sair George Bernard Shaw, in Pygmalion (1914), uses one phonetic character (? schwa) in his hear to represent the accent of Eliza Doolittle, a Cockney flower girl Theres menners f yer T? -oo banches o voylets trod into the madWill ye-oo py me fthem. However, after a few sentences of phonetic dialogue, Shaw reverts to standard spelling, noting Here, with apologies, this desperate hear to represent her dialect without a phonetic alphabet must be aban through with(p)d as unintelligible outside London. In Pygmalion Professor Higgins teaches Eliza to speak in an upper-class accent, so as to pass her off as a duchess.In the course of the play, therefore, her accent changes. The actress playing the part, however, may have a natural accent closer to that with which Eliza speaks at the closedown of her education, so in playing the part she may doing the reverse of what Eliza undergoes, by gradually reverting to a natural manner of articulation. (Elizas pronunciation improves ahead of her understanding of grammar, so that at one point she says unforgettably My aunt died of influenza so they said. But its my belief they done the old woman in. ) In Pygmalion Shaw does not merely represent accent (and other features of speech) but makes this crucial to an exploration of how speech relates to identity and social class. Charles heller is particularly interested in the sounds of speech. He observes that many speakers have difficulty with initial /v/ and /w/. Sam Weller, in The Pickwick Papers, on a regular basis transposes these Vell, said Sam at length, if this dont beat cock-fightin nothin never villThat wery next house Mr. Hubble, in Great Expectations does, the same thing when he describes young people as naterally wicious.Joe Gargery, in the same novel, has many literal peculiarities, of which perhaps the most striking is in his description of the Blacking Warehouse, which is less impressive than the picture Joe has seen on bills where it is drawd too architectooralooral. In Chapter 16 of Our uncouth Friend, Betty Higden is proud of Mr. Sloppy (an orphan she has fostered) not only because he can read, but because he is able to use different voice styles for various speakers. You mightnt think it, but Sloppy is a beautiful reader of a newspaper. He do the Police in different voices. Dickens also finds a way to show tempo and rhythm.In Chapter 23 of Little Dorrit, Flora Finching speaks at length and without any pauses Most unkind never to have come back to see us since that day, though naturally it was not to be expected that there should be any attraction at our house and you were much more pleasantly engaged, thats pretty certain, and is she fair or dark blue eyes or black I wonder, not that I expect that she should be anything but a perfect contrast to me in all particulars for I am a disappointment as I very well know and you are quite right to be devoted no doubtfulness though what am I saying Arthur never mind I hardly know myself Good gracious Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/ Phonology Background reading on phonology There are very full accounts of phonology in both of Professor David Crystals encyclopedias. See his Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, Part IV, The Medium of Language Speaking and listening (pp. 123175 ISBN 0521424437) and his Encyclopedia of the English Language, Part IV, 17, The Sound System ( pp. 236-255 ISBN 0521596556).For a very clear and succinct account, look at Howard Jacksons and Peter Stockwells Introduction to the Nature and Functions of Language, 2. 1, Sounds and letters (pp. 11-23 ISBN 0748725806). There is a longer and more discursive account in Shirley Russells Grammar, Structure and Style, talk English (pp. 107-168 ISBN 0198311982) You can find lots of help online. The best place to start is the International Phonetic Associations own weathervane site at http//www2. arts. gla. ac. uk/IPA/ipa. htmlYou will find some dainty resources from the languages department of the University of Victoria in British Columbia start at http//web. uvic. ca/ling/ipa/handbook/ For a great introduction to Scots with some excellent guidance on phonology try Andy double birdies Wir Ain Laid (Our Own Language) at http//www. scots-online. org/grammar/index. htm For help with fonts go to the IPA Unicode site at http//www. phon. ucl. ac. uk/home/wells/ipa-unicode. htm and Alan Wells Unicode Resources at http//www. hclrss. demon. co. uk/unicode/index. tml. You could also try the Microsoft typography site at http//www. microsoft. com/typography/default. asp by from materials quoted from other sources, the copyright in this guide belongs to Andrew Moore. You are free to use it for any educational purpose, including making multiple copies electronically or by printing. You may not distribute it in any form other than the original, without the express permission of the author. andrew. emailprotected net Copyright Andrew Moore, 2001 http//www. shunsley. eril. net/armoore/
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