Friday, May 31, 2019
The Life and Work of Robert BrowningRobert Browning was born on May 7, 1812, in Camberwell, which is nowadays a part of London. He had no real formal didactics so he was largelyself educated. His father was a smart worldly concern with an extensive library.His mother was kindly, religious minded woman, who loved music and herbrilliant son. He lived at his parents house almost until the time of hismarriage. He attended a boarding school near Camberwell and spent alittle bit of his time traveling to places like Russia and Italy. Buthe preferred to have his education at home, where he was tutored inforeign languages, boxing, music, and horsemanship, and where he readomnivorously. At the age of 14 he outgrowth discovered Percy Shelly worksand was strongly influenced by it. After reading Shelly, He made thedecision to be an atheist and a liberal. But in a few years he grew offfrom atheism and the extreme phases of his liberalism. The things helearned from the books he read wou ld largely influence his poems later inhis life.His earlier poetry was regarded with indifference and largelymisunderstood. It was not until the 1860s that he would at last gainpublicity and would even be compared with Alfred Lord Tennyson, anothervery famous poet of the time. Some of his early poetry was influenced byhis unusual education. The poet also had an anxious desire to avoidexposing himself explicitly to his readers. The first poem he wrotecalled Pauline, was written in 1883 at the age of twenty-one, but he didnot sign it because of his fear of exposing himself to the public too much.Since Browning did not want to expose himself too personally, hedecided to try his hand at writing plays. He was encouraged by the actorW.C. Macready. Browning began work on his first play, Strafford, ahistorical tragedy. Unfortunately, the play only lasted four nights whenit was first put on in London in 1837. For ten more years, the youngwriter would continue to struggle to produce a play t hat would bump holdthe attention of the audience, but they all remained failures. Not onlydid Browning profit from this otherwise disheartening experience, butwriting the dialogue for the characters helped him explore the salientdialogue. The dramatic dialogue, enabled him to, through imaginaryspeakers, to avoid explicit autobiography and yet did not demand thatthese speakers act out the story with the speed or simplifications that astage production demands.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 4:19 PM
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Perceptions & Deceptions Life before and after Vietnam for enthalpy Have you ever wanted to take the summer off from work and escape from reality in order to travel around the world without having any worries? Well this is what Henry and Lyman in the Red Convertible by Louise Erdrich decided to do one summer. Henry and Lyman are two brothers who grew up on the Indian reservation. They perceive life on the reservation as an ongoing circle with a harmonious atmosphere. During their trip to Montana and Alaska Henry and Lymans idea of a carefree life is only(prenominal) reinforced, but when Henry is sent to Vietnam this perception is surpassed by a bleak reality and changes Henrys reactions to the surrounding circumstances. Henry and Lyman grew up on the reservation where life was peaceful and harmonious. The two brothers had a very close descent growing up together and were able to expand their adolescence and simplicity with the purchase of the red convertible. A red convertible w as not the typical car you would foretell to see on the reservation but Henry and Lyman saw the car and bought it on a whim. They traveled to many different places with the car. The red convertible only let the two brothers enjoy their summer by taking them to many comfortable and peaceful places other than the reservation. One of the places they traveled to was filled with willows. I take to be I laid under those trees and it was comfortable. ...
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 4:14 PM
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
George Bugs Moran The GangsterGeorge Bugs Moran was not born in Chicago as thought by more people. He was born to Polish and Irish immigrant parents in 1893. Although, he was shortly moved to Chicago where it all started. Moran joined many different gangs throughout his childhood and teen years. He committed more than 20 known robberies and was imprisoned three times before he was exactly 21 years of age. He was soon very important to a mans gang that called themselves the Dion OBanions northwesterly Siders. Moran positionually became the head man of the North Siders when both of his predecessors were shot by Al Capones hit men. While he was still involved in this gang, he was the gun-man that tried to knock rack up Johnny Torrio. Moran was also in the lead car in the famous car cavalcade that drove past Al Capones Cicero headquarters, The Hawthorn Inn, firing over railyard shots into the building. The gangs war ended with the St. Valentines Day massacre. The St. Valentines Day massacre was an event that ended the whole war surrounded by the two gangs of Johnny Torrio and Morans North Siders. This event is probably the most well known mobster event in history. The North Side gangs was really getting on Al Capones nerves, so he sent his best hit men, Machine Gun Jack McGurn and others to make a new murder history. The men stole a police car, and drove to the place they were about to attack. There were seven men that belonged to the North Side gang. The hit team had all seven men stand up and face the wall. The seven complied, expecting a pat down search for weapons and identification. Then two of Capones men opened up with Thompson submachine guns, peppering each victim with numerous rounds from the .45 eagre weapon. They acted as if they were police men arresting themselves as they walked outside and drove away. It was the perfect crime except that the main target, Bugs Moran was not there, and was still alive.The war between the gangs ended in a draw. Capone came closest to Moran in the Saint Valentines Day Massacre caper but Moran was late arriving that day and lucked out. Through the 1930s, Morans power began to slump even though his nemesis, Capone, was now in jail. Morans crimes after this never amounted to much.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 5:21 PM
In our complex society there are marriages and relationships that succeed and comparably many that do not. Unfortunately, many small conflicts within mess do not resolve easily and lead up to divorces and/or break ups. It is unfair to say that particular sex is responsible for all the causes the difficulties in relationships. Therefore, both sides should be analyzed closely to find the flaws within the relationships. Most men think that their girlfriends or wives are the main problem makers, and strongly even out the fact that they are the problem too. Similarly, women find their own reasons to blame their men for the failures of their relationships. However, everything comes to a point where each person should take a look at their own flaws and also consider the problems in their own sex, that unfortunately cause their marriage to dissolve in the big pot of misunderstanding and confusion. From womens point of turn over we can see that men are not the perfect human beings, which they think they are. Women come up with countless causes that build up tension among couples. Important of all, men are blamed for every single thing. Major causes that raise difficulties and rifts within relationships are mens irresponsible spending, their habit for balling at other girls, and that they usually forget special occasions. First of all, a main cause that is commonly identified by many females is that men go for other girls and gawk at them even in their presence. Many conflicts in rela...
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 4:29 PM
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Albert Camus is one of the most renowned authors in the twentieth century. With deeds such as Caligula, The Stranger, Nuptials, and The Plague, he has impacted the world of literature to a great extent. This great success was not just "given" to him "on a silver platter" however. He endured many hardships and was plagued with great illness in his short life. Camus is a great role model and idol for us all.&type A9Camus was born into poverty on November 2, 1913 in Mondovi, Algeria (a former French colony in Africa). His mother, Catherine Sintes, was a cleaning woman, and his father, Lucien Camus, was a farmhand. Only a a couple of(prenominal) months old, Albert lost his father in the horrors of World War I in 1914. After the loss of his father, him, his brother and his mother moved in to his grandmothers three-bedroom apartment with his 2 uncles. The only way Albert "escaped" from this harsh reality was on the beaches of Algiers. At the age of fourteen, Cam us was diagnosed with the first stages of tuberculosis. This disease plagued him for the rest of his life. At age seventeen, Albert moved in with his uncle by marriage, Gustave Acault, who provided Albert with a better environment as well as an actual father figure. After enduring the hardships of his childhood, Camus began writing at age seventeen.& antiophthalmic factor9Camus wrote many influential works and gained much success, starting at age seventeen, when he decided to strive to become a writer. Alberts first "literary experience" was gained as a member of the "North African Literary Group." By 1932, he was writing articles for the magazine entitled Sud. Albert entered the University of Algiers on scholarships in this very(prenominal) year. As an art critic, he wrote articles for the newspaper Alger-Etudiant in 1934. In the same year he married Simon Hie who was wealthy but was plagued with a medicine addiction. This marriage only lasted for about two years. After earning a degree in 1935, Camus was awarded the diplome detudes superieures with his thesis "Christian Metaphysics and Neoplatonism." In 1934 he became a member of the communistic Party, but this only lasted until 1937. Albert was also a successful journalist, writing for the Alger Republicain, the Paris-Soir, and the Combat. On December 3,1940, Albert Camus married for the second time to Francine Fautre. After all of this success, some mythic works followed.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 4:13 PM
Albert Camus is one of the most renowned authors in the twentieth century. With works such as Caligula, The Stranger, Nuptials, and The Plague, he has impacted the world of literature to a great extent. This great success was not just "given" to him "on a silver platter" however. He endured many hardships and was plagued with great illness in his short life. Camus is a great role model and idol for us all.&9Camus was born into scantiness on November 2, 1913 in Mondovi, Algeria (a former French colony in Africa). His mother, Catherine Sintes, was a cleaning woman, and his father, Lucien Camus, was a farmhand. Only a few months old, Albert lost his father in the horrors of World War I in 1914. After the loss of his father, him, his brother and his mother moved in to his grandmothers three-bedroom apartment with his two uncles. The only way Albert " flee" from this harsh reality was on the beaches of Algiers. At the age of fourteen, Camus was diagnosed with the first stages of tuberculosis. This disease plagued him for the rest of his life. At age seventeen, Albert moved in with his uncle by marriage, Gustave Acault, who provided Albert with a relegate environment as well as an actual father figure. After enduring the hardships of his childhood, Camus began writing at age seventeen.&9Camus wrote many authoritative works and gained much success, starting at age seventeen, when he decided to strive to become a writer. Alberts first "literary experience" was gained as a member of the "North African Literary Group." By 1932, he was writing articles for the magazine entitled Sud. Albert entered the University of Algiers on scholarships in this same year. As an art critic, he wrote articles for the newspaper Alger-Etudiant in 1934. In the same year he married Simon Hie who was wealthy but was plagued with a drug addiction. This marriage only lasted for roughly two years. After earning a degree in 1935, Camus was awarded the diplome detudes superieures with his thesis "Christian Metaphysics and Neoplatonism." In 1934 he became a member of the Communist Party, but this only lasted until 1937. Albert was also a successful journalist, writing for the Alger Republicain, the Paris-Soir, and the Combat. On December 3,1940, Albert Camus married for the second time to Francine Fautre. After all of this success, some fabulous works followed.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 3:43 PM
Monday, May 27, 2019
Before the end of World War I, the unify States at first base was very un-isolationistic. Before the war, the States was a very expansionist nation. It had interpreted up military occupation in Cuba in 1906, taken the Philippines, taken hold of the country of Panama, and begun relations with Japan and China. But when World War I suddenly occurred, it was an unprecedented war. Never before had America seen such a large war that involved so many countries. The devastation that resulted from the war low-spirited many Americans, and the problem of unknown nations non properly paying back U. S. ar debts created some resentment among the American people as they felt they king have been cheated. Isolationism, it seemed at the time, was the best way to avoid foreign entanglements that might lead to another war that might have more disastrous effects. The first step to carrying out this new isolationistic policy was for America to put a stop to the overwhelming foreign influence on the nation. The first integrity that reflected this attitude was the Emergency Quota Act of 1921. It limited the immigration of European foreigners to America to 3 percent of the people of their nationality who had been living in the United States in 1910.Then common chord years later came the Immigration Act of 1924, which cut the quota for foreigners from 3 percent to 2 percent and shifted the national-origins base from the census of 1910 to that of 1890. This virtually stopped immigration to the United States in order to cut down on foreign influence. With immigration almost nonexistent, the United States sought to separate itself from foreign nations and their entanglements. To accomplish this, America did not join the League of Nations and refused to fully accept the Treaty of Versailles.Tariffs were yet another tool in isolating America from foreign countries. The trend of higher tariffs continued, make in incredibly difficult for any European products to enter the American ma rket. America was determined to stay peaceful no matter what. Partly repayable to the blame of World War Ion arms manufacturers and bankers, the United States passed a series of Neutrality Acts in the 1935, 1936, and 1937 forbidding the sale or transportation of munitions to belligerent nations, the sail on a belligerent nations ship, or the making of loans to a belligerent ation. These acts were meant to act as further protection to keep America out of a conflict like World War I. Isolationism in the United States during the 1920s and 1930s was adopted primarily because fear of another war like that of World War I ran rampant. In the American peoples eyes, putting an end to foreign influence would put an end to foreign entanglements in war. Little did America know at that time, however, that this isolationism only allowed aggressors to commence the beginning of World War II.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 2:37 PM
Sunday, May 26, 2019
herpes virus Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection at the Molecular Level Research Paper Virology 24 November 2008 Abstract Herpes simplex virus type 1 (herpes simplex 1) infection is widespread and owns signifi hind endt disorder in humans. The structure, epidemiology, pathogensis and resistive response are examined in this review, as easily as specific ways to reduce and eliminate pathology and related diseases. The virus naturally infects mucosal areas and begins the search for its target swarm cell. Upon binding to the host cell tissue paper layer via teams of glycoproteins, the virion is then phagocytosed.Soon the nucleus is seized and all regular host cell mechanisms are shut off. Replication of herpes simplex 1 is specific convert straightaway early, early and late genes. Once the virus replication march is complete the virus exits epithelial cells near the internet site of infection through a process known as cell lysis. Sensory neurons are the specific target of HSV-1, wh ere it can then travel to the trigeminal ganglia (TG) stoma via neuronal microtubular ne devilrks. two(prenominal) innate and adaptive immune administrations respond to the infection with various antibodies, interleukins and interferons.Once the virion reaches the nervous system of rules, the immune responses are unable to detect it although they try to contain it as high hat they can. HSV-1 enters a latent stage, usually via latent associated transcripts, not causing pathogenesis besides unable to fight off by means of the host immune system. Following a stressful situation or similarly UV activation, HSV-1 travels back down nerve fibers to re-infect cells near the original site of infection. This process is known to continue throughout the lifespan of the infected individual, normally without fatalities.When the host immune response is unable to contain the virus in the TG, some(prenominal) associated diseases much(prenominal) as encephalitis and keratits result. Genes inv olved with virus replication and host genes, to eliminate the virus, prevail been maneuvered to father reverse make and are currently used as antiviral drugs. Although no vaccine has been approved for use against HSV-1, various gets have been made. This research paper defines the virus infection at a molecular level as well as demonstrates modifications of the virus genes to cause reverse effects and investigates just a few of the diseases connected with HSV-1.Introduction Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2 are well known members of the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, which cause lifelong, latent infection in humans. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) typically remains the cause of cold sores, gingivostomatitis, and skin lesions in the orofacial area, as well as many rare but fatal conditions (1). Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is primarily associated with genital area infection. Worldwide, approximately one third of people display clinical manifestat ions of HSV-1 infection (2).HSV-1 is neurotropic, infecting multiple cell types but establishing reaction time in the trigeminal ganglia (TG). HSV-1 reactivates, in response to certain stimuli such as emotional or physical stress or UV light, and is transported along nerve fibers to mucosal or cutaneous regions (1). Infected cells verbalize signs of the nucleus changing shape and nucleolus displacement with a formation of multinucleated giant cells. Cells degenerate, lyse and vesicles of liquid containing the virus locate between the epidermis and dermal layer of the skin forming a lesion (2).Although HSV-1 infects a large percentage of the population, few actually show symptoms of disease. HSV Structure and Genome HSV-1 is an enveloped double stranded desoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) virus consisting of four elements. First, an outer envelope with glycoprotein spikes on its shape up. Second, a tegument layer including several viral proteins important during HSV-1 infection. Third , an iscosahedral capsid surrounding the last compartment, the electron opaque core containing the dsDNA genome wrapped as a spool. The envelope is made up of 13 different viral glycoproteins embedded in a lipid bilayer.The viral genome of 152 kb, encode the majority of the proteins of the mature virion. Covalently linked L (long) and S (short) components are garbled down into unique long (Ul), flanked by ab and ba perennial segments, and unique short (Us), flanked by ac and ca repeated segments. Homologous recombination between terminal repeats results in four linear isomers at equimolar concentrations (see figure 1). All four isomers, including P (prototype), IL (inversion of the L component), IS (inversion of the S component) and ISL (inversion of both the S and the L component), encode 90 unique transcription genes essential for viral replication (3).HSV Replication Infection is first initialted by the attachment to the host cell glucosaminoglycans, usually heparin sulphate an d chondroiton sulphate, with viral glycoprotein C (gC). This bond results in at least five glycoprtoeins, gB, gC, gD, gH and gL, binding to other cell surface receptors, such as Herpesvirus entry mediator or nectin 1? or ? (4). Fusion of the viral envelope follows, and the de-enveloped tegument capsid is transported to the nuclear rivets via the microtubular network, where DNA is released into the nucleus.Nuclear pore intricate accepts the viral DNA from the capsid, minimizing the diffusion of DNA to the cytoplasm, and the transfer is completed by nuclear pore proteins (5). The viral genome circularizes upon entering the nucleus, and transcription of the five immediate early genes (IE) is done by the host RNA polymerase II. Among the IE genes are ICP0, ICP4, ICP22, ICP27 and ICP47. Host transcription, RNA splicing and transport are inhibited during replication, known as host cell shut off. first (E) viral genes encode enzymes in nucleotide metabolism and viral DNA replication and require the presence of IE genes.Viral E gene products, including viral DNA polymerase, single-stranded DNA-binding protein, origin binding protein and DNA helicase-primase, assemble on the parental viral DNA and start DNA synthesis in replication compartments. Three DNA replication origins bind by viral origin-binding protein, separate the DNA strands and initiate viral DNA synthesis. locution of the late (L) genes begins and produces structural components of the virion. Capsid assembly occurs in the cytoplasm and the associated proteins are then transported to the nucleus.Progeny DNA concatamers are cleaved into monomers and are inserted into the capsid. Cleavage and packing of HSV-1 genome requires two cis-acting elements, pac1 and pac2. Next the nucleocapsid matures and egress by passing through the Golgi apparatus with the tegument layer and the virion envelope. (3) HSV Latency After infection of the mucosa or epithelial abrasion, HSV-1 enters sensory neurons near the site of infection and the tegument and nucleocapsid travel by retrograde axonal transport to cell neuronal soma releasing viral DNA and VP16, when the virus may enter lytic replication or the latent area.Lytic replication results in neuronal cell death as describe above. (2,3) During latency the genome circularizes and enters a heavily chromatinated state where no infectious virus is produced and the majority of viral gene expression is silenced. Latency associated transcripts (LAT), mRNA genes, are the wholly transcripts be in latent neurons (6). Expression of LATs is not absolutely required for maintenance of latency. Reactivation triggers the virus to be transported in the opposite direction, antrograde, and re-infection occurs at the initial site of infection. HSV and the tolerant SystemThe immune response to HSV-1 includes both innate and adaptive immune responses. Innate immunity is the first line of defense including natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and v arious cytokines and complement proteins. Initial response involves freed proteins, such as defensins and complement proteins. Complement proteins bind HSV antigens resulting in the cleavage of complement molecules. This, followed by the formation of the membrane attack complex, destroys the virus. HSV gC blocks the complement cascade, counteracting the effects of complement.The adaptive immune response is triggered with B cell memory enhanced in response to the virus. An antiviral state is induced by infected epithelial cells and resident interferon producing cells (IPCs), secreting interferon ? and ? , priming the surrounding cells for apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factors ? (TNF-? ) is also produced by IPCs and acts as an autocrine signal stimulating specialization of ICPs to dendritic cells. They can travel to the lymph nodes to stimulate CD4+ T cells to produce IFN-? and interleukin 10 (IL-10). After infection and replication, HSV-1 destroys infected cells and travels to sensory n eurons.Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, NK and TCR+ T cells infiltrate the TG, watch the infection and prevent the spread of the virus to rear by cells, including the brain. The adaptive immune response is driven by the innate immune response. Antigen presenting cells migrate from the site of infection to the regional lymph node to present CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and B cells. Deficient complement cascades leads to less vigorous memory response to HSV-1. Antibodies against gD and the gH-gL complex are found to protect against HSV-1 and are observed as cross reactive to other strains of HSV.Macrophages engulf viral proteins and cell particles from lysed cells and also secrete cytokines favoring the T helper (Th) cell CD4+ response. CD8+ cytoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are produced and they react with epitopes displayed on infected cells, which are then targeted for apoptosis. See figure 2. The IE protein ICP 27 contains blotto CTL epitopes. The efficacy of gB to induce a CTL re sponse suggests gB is the immunodominant antigen of HSV-1. (2) Beneficial Modifications of Genes Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 and Relative Associated DiseasesOccasionally the immune system is unable to prevent HSV-1 from spreading to surrounding structures such as the eye. ocular HSV-1 infection is termed herpetic keratitis, tissue destruction of the eye, and is currently treated with trifluridine or valacyclovir to inhibit HSV-1 DNA polymerase and terminate synthesis of the sugar backbone of viral DNA. The current antiviral compounds require phosphorylation by the infected cell, meaning the antiviral activity cannot take place until the infection has progressed to the point where specific viral thymidine kinase is synthesized.A hot idea involves helicase-primase inhibitors acting to prevent the unwinding of the double-stranded DNA and the initiation of the new strand synthesis necessary for viral production. Kleymann et al. found a compound, BAY 57-1293, more(preno minal) potent and more effective than valacyclovir and unassociated with systemic toxicity to initiate the exposit mechanism. (7) A similar study explored the lesion associated with the tissue destruction of the cornea, specifically angiogenesis of stromal keratits (SK).The fibroblast suppuration factor 2 (FGF-2), a molecule known to stimulate cell growth to contribute to infract healing, was targeted to observe the antiviral activity via its effect on HSV-1 cell entry. FGF-2 inhibits HSV-1 from binding to heparin sulfate, thus hindering juggle into the host cell. Results of this study suggest severity and clinical SK could be significantly diminished by daily treatment of lesions with FGF-2 protein, due to accelerated epithelial wound healing. (8) Similarly, HSV-1 can surpass the immune response and travel to the brain. HSV-1 encephalitis is the most devastating consequence of HSV and the most ommon cause of fetal encephalitis. Early growth response 1 (Erg-1) is a zinc finger t ranscription factor expressed in neural tissue, and is induced during stress. It regulates growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis and development. Erg-1 is known to regulate several viral genes, including LATs, and is inducible by viral proteins. Erg-1 increases viral replication in infected cells and mortality in infected mice. Knockout of Erg-1 expression was shown to reduce the mortality by decreasing the viral loads to tissues in a study conducted by Shis-Heng Chen et al. 9) It has been demonstrated HSV-1 can induce increased activity of primal norepinephrine or serotonin neurons, by activating the cell bodies located in the brain stem, following encephalitis. Increased brain stem activity of these neurotransmitters can impair glucocorticoids (GC) negative feedback receptors, activating cytokines IL-1 and TNF? , reducing the binding capacity of said GC receptors. Impaired control of the GC negative feedback regulation upon the hypothalamo-pituitary suprarenal gland axis has been sugg ested as an important aspect in major depression. (10)Thrombin is a result of the generation of sequential proteolytic enzymes activating circular precursor enzymes and cofactors for line of reasoning clotting. HSV-1, HSV-2 and cytomegalovirus have been shown to avoid cellular control of coagulation initiation through the constitutive expression of procoagulant phospholipids and tissue factor. This allows the unregulated generation of thrombin because tissue factor can bind ciruculating factor VIIa, forming a cofactor-enzyme complex directly on the virus. Tenase activity has been credited to HSV-1 encoded gC, which accelerates the FVIIa-dependent activation of FX.FXa associates with its cofactor V to convert prothrombin to thrombin. Assembly of FX and FV leading to thrombin generation has been demonstrated on the virus surface. Herpes virus genomic material has been associated with atherosclerosis plaque, thrombosis and atherosclerosis due to the unregulated production of thrombin . (11) It is well known NK cells aid in the fight against HSV-1 infection. Severe herpetic infections have been seen in NK -deficient patients, as well as early infiltrations of herpetic lesions by NK cells. This due to ill-treat of HLA class 1 expression by HSV-1 and the lysis of HSV-1 infected targets by NK cells.E. Estefania et al. presented a study suggesting clinical symptoms of HSV-1 infection being more likely to happen among humans expressing the NK cell receptors KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2. The genes encoding the receptors appear to increase the risk of recurrent infection, where the lack of the receptors is shown to protect from the disease. (1) Conclusion HSV-1 can cause severe recurrent disease in humans and establish lifelong infection in their hosts. Several antiviral approaches have been considered to counteract the effects of HSV-1 throughout the body yet no vaccine, to cure the infection from its host, has been accepted.Acyclovir, and its ester derivative valacyclovir, as well as penciclovir and its prodrug famciclovir, are the latest approved antiviral medications to action HSV-1 infection. Several other strategies are currently under investigation such as potential therapeutic vaccines, cidofovir, and aqueous extracts in Africa. Past attempts of vaccines have utilized viral vectors, DNA vaccination, recombinant bacteria, cytokines to manipulate the immune response, novel adjuvants, innovative delivery systems and different routes of inoculation. Most of which have been successful in lab mice but none have been approved for human use.Therapeutic vaccines target symptomatic individuals, using DNA vaccines encoding various cytokines used to intentionally bias the immune system toward Th1 or Th2 responses. Different boosts with different cytokine adjuvants may be used to induce proper immune response. (2) Extracts from the eastern cape of Africa, Aloe ferox and Withania somnifera, confirmed morphological changes indicative of cytopathic effects that retard the replication and spread of HSV-1. (12) Furthermore, a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient developed mucosal HSV-1 infection, and while under acyclovir treatment, later showed resistance to the antiviral.After developing hemorrhagic cystitis due to polyomavirus BK, cidofovir was prescribed and the patient profited from the broad spectrum anti-DNA virus activity with the disappearance of HSV-1 lesions. (13) In conclusion, as described above the mechanisms by which HSV-1 hijacks and hides out in its host, have been studied to great detail and are routinely manipulated. The particularly complex structure, as well as detailed means by which each gene in the large genome is activated and carries out its genes products, intrigue many scientists which continue to investigate and attempt a formidable vaccine against the virus.Studies among mice have proven effective, although HSV-1 is a very host specific infection, thus making trials of acceptable anitvirals and vaccines extremely difficult. The only slightly acceptable element of HSV-1 infection is, in rare cases where no reoccurrences is shown, and moreover there are many instances of asymptomatic carriers. Devastating incidence such as transferring HSV-1 to a neonate during delivery and schizophrenics showing decreased prefrontal grey matter due to HSV-1, are just a pinch of the terrifying effects of this virus, remaining in host TG until a stressful situation comes along. 14,15) Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 Genome (Figure 1) 00 Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection (Figure 2) Works Cited 1. )Estefania, E, et al. Influence of KIR gene diversity on the course of HSV-1 infection resistance to the disease is associated with the absence of KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2. Tissue Antigens 70. 1 (July 2007) 34-41. MEDLINE. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 19 Nov. 2008 . 2. )Ferenczy, Michael W. Prophylactic Vaccine Strategies and the Potential of Therapeutic Vaccines Against Herpes Simplex Virus. Cu rrent pharmaceutic Design 13. 9 July 2007) 1975-1988. faculty member Search Premier. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 19 Nov. 2008 . 3. )Shen, Y, and J Nemunaitis.. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for cancer treatment. Cancer Gene Therapy 13. 11 (07 Nov. 2006) 975-992. MEDLINE. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 19 Nov. 2008 . 4. )Clement, Christian, et al. A novel division for phagocytosis-like uptake in herpes simplex virus entry. journal of Cell Biology 174. 7 (25 Sep. 2006) 1009-1021. donnish Search Premier. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 4 Sep. 2008 . 5. )Newcomb, William W, Frank P Booy, and Jay C Brown. Uncoating the herpes simplex virus genome. Journal Of Molecular Biology 370. 4 (20 July 2007) 633-642. MEDLINE. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 3 Sep. 2008 . 6. )Ramachandran, Srividya, and Paul R Kinchington.. Potential prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for HSV infections. Current Pharmaceutical Design 13. 19 (2007) 1965-1973. MEDLINE. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 22 Nov. 2008 . 7. )Kaufman, Herbert E, et al. Efficacy of a helicase-primase inhibitor in animal models of ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. Journal Of Ocular Pharmacology And Therapeutics The Official Journal Of The Association For Ocular Pharmacology And Therapeutics 24. 1 (Feb. 2008) 34-42. MEDLINE. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 19 Nov. 2008 . 8. )Kim, Bumseok, et al. Application of FGF-2 to Modulate Herpetic Stromal Keratitis. Current Eye Research 31. 12 (Dec. 2006) 1021-1028. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 19 Nov. 2008 . 9. )Chen S, Yao H, Chen I, Shieh B, Li C, Chen S.Suppression of transcription factor early growth response 1 reduces herpes simplex virus lethality in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation serial online. October 2008118(10)3470-3477. Available from Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 22, 2008. 10 . )Bener, Dafna, et al. Glucocorticoid Resistance following Herpes Simplex-1 Infection Role of Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptors. Neuroendocrinology 85. 4 (Apr. 2007) 207-215. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 19 Nov. 2008 . 11. )Thrombin paper 12. )Kambizi, L. , et al. Anti-viral effects of aqueous extracts of Aloe Xerox and Withania somnifera on herpes simplex virus type 1 in cell culture. South African Journal of Science 103. 9/10 (Sep. 2007) 359-360. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 10 Sep. 2008 . 13. )Andrei, G, et al. Dual infection with polyomavirus BK and acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus successfully treated with cidofovir in a bone marrow transplant recipient. Transplant Infectious Disease An Official Journal Of The Transplantation Society 9. 2 (June 2007) 126-131. MEDLINE. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 19 Nov. 2008 . 14. )Brown, Elizabeth L. , et al. tack of materna l herpes simplex virus (HSV) serostatus and HSV type on risk of neonatal herpes. Acta Obstetricia & Gynecologica Scandinavica 86. 5 (May 2007) 523-529. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 17 Sep. 2008 . 15. )Prasad, K. M. R. , et al. Brain morphological changes associated with moving picture to HSV1 in first-episode schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 12. 1 (Jan. 2007) 105-113. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Library name, City, State abbreviation. 1 Oct. 2008 .
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 1:56 PM
Saturday, May 25, 2019
1. 0 Introduction This case study is based on the society Elektra Product Inc . It is enough hop on publicly held company that had once been a leading manufacturer and retailer of electrical products and supplies. But, directlyadays the company is lining a host of problems. Market shargon was declining in the face of increased foreign and domestic competition, new product ideas were few and far between and departments much(prenominal) as manufacturing and sales bargonly spoke to virtuoso a nonher. The confidence was becoming low and many employees were switching other(a) jobs.Few decisions are taking which are not productive for the company and the employees as well. Barbara Russell is the one of the tip flower focussing tries to make a change for the company. But her assumptions are not profound enough for amelioration of the organization. 1. 1 LESSON LEARNED FROM THE CASE Barbara Russell, Elektras Vice President of Manufacturing, has been tasked by Martin Griffin, Elektra s new President, to head one of the team ups that will devise a plan to change Elektras focus style from a traditional top- downwardly firm to a de-centralized organization that emphasizes employee empowerment in the management process.Ms. Russell forms an enthusiastic team that works extra hours to collect management changes that would allow employees at all trains to make decisions appropriate to their positions. However, When the recommendations are presented to department heads, they receive a cold reception when Mr. Griffin is called away from the meeting. Ms. Russell is now faced with the problem of implementing change against the resistance of the mid-level management. 2. 0 ANSWER TO THE CASE QUESTIONS 2. 1 QUESTION 1How aptitude top management rescue done a better job changing Elektra Products into a new kind of organization? Elektra products are facing many problems that we have already mentioned earlier. At this clipping they rent some solution in order to recover from this dangerous situation. Company management has launched some implementation programme in the worry. Here Barbara Russel who is the one of the top management could restructure the function of management. The problem is they have not discussed the matter with all department heads.After that, few skills should wish to apply in this company analogous human skill, technical skill. Barbara Russel essential need to use management theories to change the company in a new organization. Managers must need to work suddenly in their positions by following the instructions of top management. In the company there is dispute between themselves and newly appointed CEO Martin Griffin. Barbara Russel must need to handle the situation tactfully because conflict could be larger in future. Without that, she needs to follow the managing roles and use it properly to solve the problems.He should follow the basic functions of management Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling. At last, top management should need to follow the theories of management perfectly, and then they faecal matter change Elektra Product Inc. into a new kind of organization. What might they do now to get the empowerment process back on track? Martin, who gestate the situation as a challenge was appreciateable, because the company had no hope of reco very. He needs a new idea and new force to make this company great. So he wishes some help from the top management and employees.The company needs to reform its Planning process since there is a problem of future forecast of product innovation and the competition is very high managers shifts from control to facilitation and Coordinating of work process, Selection of right people for the right place at the right job is an important for a good flow of efficiency in work currently employees from different departments facing the problem of communication barriers between department to department so it should be down by communicating each other. For the e mployee empowerment few things are needed.At first, training in the skills necessary to carry out the surplus responsibilities. Lack of knowledge in work will reduce efficiency and effectiveness, so it should be developed by training in the skills an important task for employees to carry out the additional responsibilities. Then, initiative and confidence is needed to the employees to take greater responsibility. Empowerment management means granting authority to subordinates. Her team actually tried to empower lower level management without including them in the solution. Employee communication is one of the strongest signs of employee empowerment.Managers also must take on new roles, knowledge and responsibilities for employees empowerment. The Research & Development department must study about current development in the electrical product which improves the innovativeness of the company products. Actually, the main objective is to implement empowerment and innovation as a form o f salvation to the companys declining market share, lack of new product ideas, lack of communication, low morale and lack of employees trust to the corporation. 2. 2 QUESTION 2 Can you think of ship female genitalsal Barbara could have avoided the problems her team faced in the meeting with department heads?There are other ways that Barbara could have done to avoid the problems her team faced in the meeting with department heads. First and foremost, even though the top management has already delegate several problems-solving teams, Barbara and her team should not limit the idea to implement Employees Empowerment Process from their own team perspectives alone. Instead, they should seek inputs or opinions from other managers as well. Surely, other managers will feel pleased to be given the opportunity to express their views on the issue and will appreciate being consulted before decisions are made.Eventually, Barbara and her team will be deemed as more collaborative in the workplace, and the rejection is unlikely. Second, they should have more convincing suggestions that mention personal benefit that everybody will get if the suggestions are implemented. The personal benefits mentioned could be in the form of increased job security or more advance to the company that will lead to salary step-up not only for the employees, but also for everybody from top to the bottom of the organization.This kind of suggestion, according to Jack Welch in his book Winning the Answer will event the question of Whats in this for me on everyones mind. Lastly, they should always come out to the meeting with good preparation and planning by having contingency proposals. They have to come out with Plan A and Plan B. In fact, the more alternative is the better. By doing so, it will give the top management choices that will significantly help them in making an informed decision and deal with the crisis faster. 2. 3 QUESTION 3 If you were Barbara Russell, what would you do now?Why? E lektra Product is a mature company, so there should be rapid growth of production and sales. But due to some mistakes in decision makings, conditions of the company have become critical. Barbara Russell, the transgression president of manufacturing who has lots of responsibilities. Barbara Russell has several options to consider after what happened to the meeting. Her first option was to keep her mouth shut. In doing so, nothing can ever be proficient. Although it can eliminate argument from the other department heads, it will not solve the problem.Her ideas would only be put to waste if she decides to keep quiet about them. another(prenominal) option is to deal with the CEO. This will open the line of communication for managers. If she confronts Martin Griffin about the ideas, he might even back her up if they see inwardness to eye. He is an important figure in the implementation of the empowerment campaign as he directs and decides for the organization. Approaching him would hel p Barbara gain more confidence in her ideas. Barbara Russell can need to push for reform slowly and work for gradual support from the other teams.Because change does not happen overnight, Barbara Russell can take smaller steps in trying to gain the support of her losses. She can try to communicate with them first and slowly they can begin to understand the advantages and benefits of her suggestions. And finally, she can choose to leave the company and work for another. In cases when all hopes are lost, this may be her only option as she hopes to be heard and acknowledged in another company. If I ware Barbara Russell I would have doing this types of activities to reform the organization. 4. 0 REVIEWS FROM THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVEOne of the best characteristic of Islam is its comprehensive approach of human life. There is no field in our life except Islam has given directions and rules to be applied there. This is why we can see the business field is also full with Muslim rules and l aws in order to make success and bliss for both seller and buyer. The importance of business in Islam Islam encourages hardworking to earn money for life and to take care family, it is considered as the responsibility of a Muslim after his worships as it is explained in Quran (Al Jumua 10). The last prophet Muhammad(s) himself was also a businessman in the starting of his youngster and he was known as an expert in this field before his prophet hood. It is written in Islamic explanation that the prophet has been given the name of Al Ameen because of his honesty in the dealing with the people. If we send our eyes through the Islamic history we see that the companions of Prophet(s) like Abu baker, Abdurrahman lay in awf (r) were businessmen, those who helped Islam with their health and wealth.Planning and good behavior The best way to get the elements of a successful business is to analyze the Islamic teachings which belong to the dealings. The plan and strategy are most important parts in a business project. Islam doesnt allow a Muslim to work rapidly without any planning as it is discouraged by Prophet Muhammad (s) the urgency is the act of Satan. All ideas should be consulted and discussed to other workers and keep attractive behavior with both colleagues and customers. So we can see the Quran gives more importance for discussion and consultation as Allah says ( 159) Holding best techniques It is worth to mention here that the Prophet advises that a Muslim should shoot best techniques whatever he does . A businessman should not try to finish his project the way he likes, but he has to finish it in its best quality. Satisfaction of both parties Another teaching of Islam for a successful business is considering the satisfaction of both seller and buyer.We should not focus on our profit unless we care that whether buyer is satisfied or not. The disappointment of the customer will lead to decrease the popularity of a product. So we see the Quran states very clearly that the satisfaction of both parties is necessary for dealing. Cheating In quality of product and its quantity There are many Islamic teachings which order to avoid bad behaviors in business like cheating, black market and hording. Islam has strongly handled the cheating in business where it is in the quality of a product and its quantity.The best evidence of this is that the one chapter in Quran is named as one who reduce the quantity . Its first fourth verses talk about the cheating in quantity. . . . . ( 1-4) There are many understandings relate to this matter as we mentioned before. So it is our responsibility to take these teachings and bring to the light in order to understand the miracles of the Holly Quran and to make a standard business project. 4. 1 Conclusion and recommendationIt is imperative for the entire company to become sure of their roles, responsibilities and worth in the company. Once they become aware that they mean something and that they can contribute to the betterment of the organization, this will surely uplift their morale and they can all start working and cooperating towards the common goal. More importantly, managers must be completely aware of their specific tasks and that they effectively and efficiently accomplish their tasks in the company because their subordinates rely on their capacity to direct the entire company towards their goal.It may take time to open this line but slow reform is better than none. And once communication is open it becomes easier to gain the support of the other teams. Another recommendation is team-building. If the company works as one and each member works towards one common goal, then empowerment and all other campaigns are attainable. If the employees learn how to gather and participate, then no problem can put down a united Elektra Products, Inc. References http//www. eham. net/reviews/detail/4212 http//www. antiessays. co m/ http//www. scribd. com/doc/ http//www. papercamp. com/group/
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 12:30 PM
Friday, May 24, 2019
Frances Carrefour relies on the key strengths of supplier contacts and customer knowledge when developing and implementing marketing strategy. Carrefour has 108 one thousand thousand in yearly turnover and operates 1,530 hypermarkets, supermarkets, discount stores and convenience stores in 33 countries. Even though retailing is an intensely competitive industry, Carrefours marketers have used these international strengths to great advantage when preparing marketing plans to address various opportunities and threats in Europe, Latin America and Asia.For example, a few months after Carrefour moved its global sourcing routine to Thailand, executives became aware that local anesthetic farmers were producing a surplus of fruits such as durian and mangosteens. In the past, these fruits had sold well in the 34 Thai Carrefour stores as well as in the chains outlets in Taiwan, China and Indonesia. Identifying this as a marketing opportunity, Carrefours marketing director in Thailand arrang ed to buy hundreds of additional tonnes of local fruits and created a plan to encourage he European stores to stock the fruits as a taste of Thailand at an attractive price.Depending on the country, as much as 90-95 per cent of merchandise stocked in Carrefour stores is purchased from local suppliers. The purpose is to make the most of the opportunity by establishing mutually beneficial connections with local suppliers for the hanker term. When Carrefours marketers analyze the internal environment, they examine the results of previous marketing programmes across the entire chain and in individual stores. They have grouped the customer base of 14 illion households worldwide into 60,000 customer segments for more relevant marketing attention.With deep analysis, they can target more precisely and measure the return on investment for individually programme in the marketing plan. Carrefour also acts quickly when analyses point to unusual challenges or opportunities. For example, Just a few months after opening hypermarkets in Moscow and Krasnodar, the retailer decided to stop expansion in Russia and sell the new stores because difficult economic circumstances had reduced short-term growth opportunities.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 11:04 AM
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Ans Kautilya provides a systematic treatment of management of human resources as early as quaternate ascorbic acid B. C. in his treatise titled Arth Shastra. As it has been described in the book, there prevailed logical procedures and principles in respect of labor party organizations such(prenominal) as Shreni or golf club system and co-operative sector. The wages were paid strictly in terms of quantity and quality of hold out turned out and penalty were imposed for unnecessarily delaying the work or spoiling it. The concept of Varnasharam or caste system was originally based on these principles .The individuals who used to earn their sustenance by engaging themselves in activities such as teaching, sacrifices or state management were designated as Brahmins while those specializing in fighting were termed as Kshatiyas. From the 14th century B. C. to the later half of the tenth century A. D. , the relationships between the employer and employees were marked by justice and equi ty. As regards Indian economy in Mediaeval India, although there was a lull because of numerous opposed aggressions for around 700 years, during the Mughal rules, the Indian trade and commerce were revived.Several Karkhanas were complete at Agra, Delhi, Lahore, Ahmedabad and various opposite places. The Plantation Act of 1863 makes render that if the workers failed to complete their period of contract, they should be imprisoned for a period not exceeding three months. Explicitly, the working conditions in the tea plantations were extremely bad. Accordingly, the workers were entirely confounded in the face of the unionised and powerful European planters. In 1905, the printers Union at Calcutta and in 1907, the Postal Union at Bombay was established.In 1922, the indentured labor system involving migration of India Labor to other countries on contract basis was abolished as a result of a strong National movement. In the same year, the primordial Labor Board was established to fe derate the different unions in the Bombay city and the All India Trade Union Congress was organized. It may be noted that the received statistics of trade union development are not available for the period before the formal implementation of the Indian Trade Unions Act, 1926.Betw2een 1939-40 and 1944-45 the number of registered trade unions change magnitude from 666 to 865. During period 1947-1960 industrial employment rose by 2. 8 times, the total claimed union membership also went up by 2. 3 times. In 1960, 45 percent of the total industrial workforce was claimed to be unionized. Today, the total membership is estimated to be around 4. 3 million i. e. 28 percent of total workforce. MB0027 Human Resource Management duty assignment 1 Answer the following questions Q1Elaborate on the evolution of Human Resource Management.Ans Kautilya provides a systematic treatment of management of human resources as early as 4th century B. C. in his treatise titled Arth Shastra. As it has been described in the book, there prevailed logical procedures and principles in respect of labor organizations such as Shreni or guild system and co-operative sector. The wages were paid strictly in terms of quantity and quality of work turned out and punishment were imposed for unnecessarily delaying the work or spoiling it.The concept of Varnasharam or caste system was originally based on these principles . The individuals who used to earn their livelihood by engaging themselves in activities such as teaching, sacrifices or state management were designated as Brahmins while those specializing in fighting were termed as Kshatiyas. From the 14th century B. C. to the later half of the 10th century A. D. , the relationships between the employer and employees were marked by justice and equity.As regards Indian economy in Mediaeval India, although there was a lull because of numerous foreign aggressions for around 700 years, during the Mughal rules, the Indian trade and commerce were revive d. Several Karkhanas were established at Agra, Delhi, Lahore, Ahmedabad and various other places. The Plantation Act of 1863 makes provisions that if the workers failed to complete their period of contract, they should be imprisoned for a period not exceeding three months. Explicitly, the working conditions in the tea plantations were extremely bad.Accordingly, the workers were entirely helpless in the face of the organized and powerful European planters. In 1905, the printers Union at Calcutta and in 1907, the Postal Union at Bombay was established. In 1922, the indentured labor system involving migration of India Labor to other countries on contract basis was abolished as a result of a strong National movement. In the same year, the Central Labor Board was established to federate the different unions in the Bombay city and the All India Trade Union Congress was organized.It may be noted that the reliable statistics of trade union growth are not available for the period before the formal implementation of the Indian Trade Unions Act, 1926. Betw2een 1939-40 and 1944-45 the number of registered trade unions increased from 666 to 865. During period 1947-1960 industrial employment rose by 2. 8 times, the total claimed union membership also went up by 2. 3 times. In 1960, 45 percent of the total industrial workforce was claimed to be unionized. Today, the total membership is estimated to be around 4. 3 million i. e. 28 percent of total workforce.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 9:42 AM
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Life experiences bring knowledge to people. Having a lot of good and bad experiences helps us improve our way of thinking it opens our minds and teaches us unforgett subject lessons about life, lessons that we have to apply in the future. My parents taught me to be independent and self-motivated by providing me opportunities to learn by trial and error. I was given a singular amount of freedom at a young age. When I was 6, my parents bought me an old computer for $25 from a local yard sale with the intention of permit me loose on it . I was thrilled .Motivated by quirk. I delved into it at once and learned how to use each and every feature of the computer. My intellectual curiosity is the result of a unique combination of early influences and childhood experiences which have fueled my passion for learning inside and outside of the classroomlearning from everything I do . I hope to apply this curiosity to all aspects of my life.I have lived such a life experience in my last full(p renominal) cultivate year. Along with 12th grade and turning up eighteen years old, I was going to become independent, on my own feet as several(prenominal) would say. Time has taught me how to take fast decisions. Some of them were bad decisions, some were good. It was a very difficult period for me, as I was forced to fight against time, stress, mysterious emotions and most important, I had to choose the road to follow for my career. The final exam was a hard challenge. There were times I felt I would halt times of weakness when I searched peace in a cigarette without thinking it can make me dependent, all these times I was teaching a great lesson maturity I realized I wasnt a kid anymore and that my own destiny can be influenced by a simple decision. This experience made me learn what truly means making sacrifices for achieving your goals.I gave up to my free time to replace it with hard working, interminable tiredness and meditations. It wasnt an easy sacrifice, as desperat ion said her word in some moments. But the most important thing is the positive lesson it taught me, that is, never gives up fighting, no matter what happens because there is a hope for everything in life, and loosing it doesnt bring you close to your goals. I have lost some of my friends for being able to reach on top, and this thing taught me what true friendship really meant and that some people we see as friends can turn out to be our bruise enemies. To me, change is something new and you experience changes throughout your life. However, I learnt that telling everything about yourself can only bring bad things,because you can never know how a relationship can turn out between people. I can say I found myself again in this last high school year, rediscovered my ambition and passion for the things I do.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 10:05 AM
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
The thought of Medicine and dental medicine has expanded greatly over the last one hundred fifty old ages with the development of many new look intoing techniques. A broad scope of direct and indirect measuring techniques have been use to obtain informations on the morphology of the teething. In the yesteryear, research workers used the contact method of tooth measuring utilizing easy tools such as a Millimeter flexible rule or a slide calibrated Caliper for dental dramatis personae measurings. With the promotions in image processing and picture taking, planar ( 2D ) and 3-dimensional ( 3D ) techniques began to be used in tooth measurings. The integrating of computing machine based image analysis in 2D and 3D measuring has farther enhanced research. Early alternate attacks include measurings from photographic images and optical maser sophisticated occlusograms all(prenominal) bit good as Holograms for the occlusal facets of dental medicine. High quality images used for the int ent of clinical and research surveies overtop the usage of advanced and sophisticated equipments.Previous twin surveies including dental morphology have confirmed a strong familial part to the ascertained fluctuation, so comparings mingled with monozygotic ( MZ ) co-twins who portion the same cistrons have tended to concentrate on similarities between their teethings instead than differences.While measurings performed straight on dentitions proved to be disenfranchised in footings of dependability, measurings of dental dramatis personaes either manually or through the usage of assorted equipments and computing machine plans produced the most blameless and dependable consequences. Surveies have achieved accurate measuring of dentitions demoing the fluctuation in tooth morphology. Different devices have been used for this intent each will be illustrated as follows1.2 Two Dimensional Methods in tooth measuringMechanical methods be still the easy and functional recording technique for the measuring of tooth size by most research workers. Ballard ( 1944 ) , Nance ( 1947 ) , Hixon and Oldfaher ( 1958 ) , Barrett et Al. ( 1963 ) , and Moorrees et Al. ( 1957 ) all suggested the same basic rules for entryway dimensions of dental dramatis personae. The bulk used dramatis personaes theoretical accounts of plaster of Paris poured from alginate feelings. Barrett et Al. ( 1963 ) used dramatis personaes made of dental rock and reported that intra- vocal exam measurings taken straight in ad-lib cavity are less accurate than those taken from dental dramatis personaes. Peck and Peck ( 1972a ) measured the mesio-distal and facio-lingual dimensions of dentitions straight intra-orally.1.2.1 Millimeter flexible swayerDuring the earlier yearss, simple instruments such as a brace of splitters with a millimetre swayer were used as a contact method for tooth measurings. ( Black CV, 1902, Ballard ML, 1944 and Bolton WA 1958 ) . despite being the footing for tooth measurings bu t it had approximately familial restrictions as to the trouble in straight mensurating teeth dimensions. Besides, statistical analysis, at that clip, was non every bit certain as presents.1.2.2 Calipers and splittersCalipers are used to mensurate the distance between 2 symmetrically opposing sides. Using a brace of callipers is still a roughhewn method to execute measurings on dental plaster dramatis personaes. Typically, measurings on a dental dramatis personae are performed utilizing Vernier Calipers or splitters ( A Vernier graduated tabularise is an extra graduated table which allows a distance or angle measuring to be read more(prenominal) exactly than straight reading a uniformly-divided heterosexual or round measuring graduated table. It is a skiding secondary graduated table that is used to bespeak where the measuring lies when it is in between two of the Markss on the chief graduated table ) which are preciseness instruments that can be used to mensurate internal and external distances highly accurately. ( Fig.1 )Selmer-Olsen R, ( 1954 ) and Hunter WS, priest WR ( 1960 ) did dental dramatis personae measurings by skiding graduated calipers along and across the dentition. The technique was found to be dependable.Moorrees et al,1957 obtained the mesiodistal crown diameter of a tooth by mensurating the greatest distance between the contact points on its approximal surfaces, utilizing a skiding calliper held tally both to the occlusal and vestibular surfaces.Many techniques and methods were described to mensurate tooth diameters, and many surveies used different methods to obtain their consequences, some of which are listed below.Jensen E ( 1957 ) obtained the mesiodistal crown diameter of a tooth by mensurating the greatest distance between the contact points on its approximal surfaces utilizing a skiding calliper held parallel both to the occlusal and vestibular surfaces. He compared the average mesiodistal Crown diameters for the two different samples of Swedish kids and found statistically important differences for the lasting upper jaw and inframaxillary incisors and eyetooths of the male childs and of the misss.Hunter and Priest ( 1960 ) revealed that mensurating teeth size on plaster dramatis personaes is easier than in the oral cavity. In instance of the 2nd bicuspid and molars the dramatis personae measurings were consistently 0.1mm greater than measurings obtained in oral cavity. However, for the measurings of anterior dentitions, no important differences were found. Furthermore, they measured and compared soaped versus non-soaped theoretical accounts and revealed that the soaped theoretical accounts measured lightly greater in overall dimensions. However, this addition was non important every bit far as single dentitions were concerned.In general measurings obtained from dental dramatis personaes are more consistent and more accurate than direct measuring obtained in the oral cavity, particularly of the posterio r dentition ( Doris et al. 1981 ) .Two chief instruments have been used for mensurating tooth dimensions1. Skiding calipers with a vernier scale graduated table, and2. Engineering splitters used in concurrence with a millimeter regulation.Ghose et, al ( 1979 ) used skiding callipers with a vernier graduated table to do measurings with an truth of & A Acirc O.1mm. The mensurating tips of the callipers were specially pointed to transport out accurate measurings. The skiding callipers were held parallel to the occlusal and vestibular surfaces of the Crown to mensurate the mesiodistal crown diameter of a tooth. This was achieved by mensurating the greatest distance between the approximative surfaces of the Crown. In the instance of rotated or malposed tooth, in relation to the dental arch, the measuring was taken between the points on the approximative surface of the Crown, where it was judged that normal contact should hold occurred with the adjacent dentition.They to a fault found that the mesiodistal measurings for the Iraqi males were larger than that for the females, but besides noticed that the difference merely reached the degree of significance in the eyetooths and the lower left(p) first grinder.Olayinka et Al ( 1996 ) used electronic digital calliper ( Mitutoyo, Japan ) and compared the mesiodistal and buccolingual crown dimensions of the lasting dentition in Nigerian and British populations.Kieser 1990 stated that tooth length and width move the most widely recognized of piece characteristics. These measurings provide of import information on such jobs as human biological familial relationships between human population and environmental version. Modern digital callipers are available for automatically entering the distance measured, but the truth and preciseness depends on method standardization. gong and A. F. Ayoub ( 2003 ) measured the tooth dimensions utilizing mensurating callipers, similar to the Vernier callipers ( Fig. 1 ) . The tips of th e calliper were placed on a specific landmark and the measurings were taken by reading the distance from the swayer on the calliper.Zilberman et Al, ( 2003 ) compared the truths of mensurating dramatis personaes with electronic callipers and OrthoCAD techniques. They created 20 typodont apparatuss with unreal dentitions holding assorted malocclusions and took feelings of them.Both plaster and digital theoretical accounts were made, and tooth size, intercanine breadth, and intermolar breadth measurings were taken from the typodonts. Consequences showed that all methods of measurings were extremely well-grounded and consistent for tooth size, intercanine breadth, and intermolar breadth. But comparing of the electronic callipers and digital measurings revealed that the measurings on the plaster theoretical accounts made with electronic callipers had greater truth and duplicability than the OrthoCAD attack.Susan N. et, Al ( 2005 ) used orthodontic theoretical accounts to re-structure t he mesiodistal tooth breadth from first grinder to first grinder. The readings were obtained by mensurating the greatest distance between the contact points on proximal surfaces utilizing a Munchner ( Munich, Germany ) vernier gauge calliper. They besides measured the arch length and arch breadth between eyetooths, bicuspids, and first grinders. Three points were selected to mensurate the arch breadth between each tooth and its parallel on the contralateral viz. the distance between the buccal cusp on the right side to the buccal cusp on the left side, distance between the cardinal pit to cardinal pit, and the distance between the linguistic cusp to the linguistic cusp. In the instance of first grinders, the measurings were made from the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual cusps to the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual cusps of the contralateral grinder severally.Hunter and Priest ( 1960 ) performed two different ways of measurings on dramatis personaes and in the oral cavity with splitters a nd with skiding callipers. They found differences between two sets of repetition dramatis personaes, differences in mensurating both upper jaw to opposed mandible and left opposed to compensate, and differences between tooth types. Besides, they found that skiding callipers were accurate than splitters and that measurings were easier to be made on dramatis personae than in the oral cavity..1.2.3 PhotographyModern picture taking began in the 1820s with the first lasting exposure. Early tv photographic cameras did non repair an image, but merely projected images from an gap in the smother of a darkened room onto a surface, turning the room into a big pinhole camera. While this early paradigm of today s modern camera may hold had modest use in its clip, it was an of import measure in the development of the innovation. With the development of chemical picture taking, it became possible to bring forth fixed images on documents. The modern photographic occasion came approximately fro m a series of polishs and betterments in the first 20 old ages. In 1884 George Eastman, Rochester, New York, actual dry gel on a movie to replace the photographic home base so that a lensman no longer requisite to transport boxes of home bases and toxic chemicals around. In 1888 Eastman s Kodak camera came into the market. By this clip, anyone could take a exposure and go forth the complex parts of the procedure to others, and therefore picture taking became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the debut of the Kodak Brownie. In the 20th century picture taking authentic quickly as a commercial service.The usage of modern photographic methods in dental research began in the 1940 & A acirc s which opened new frontiers for dental research. Bjorn et Al ( 1953 ) introduced photographic methods to mensurate the volume of facial puffinesss. An feeling of the patient s upper and lower dentition was taken in self-curing acrylic rosin on a U-shaped brass home base. The home base wa s left to indurate and was so attached to a base, which in its bend was fastened to a steady tabular array, which besides supported the stereo camera ( Fig.2 ) . During the exposure the home base could be fixed with high truth in the same place on the base and the patient had to seize with teeth into the feeling. The camera was placed on one of the two phonograph record at the terminals of the tabular array so constructed that the same place could be reproduced with hitgh truth. To back up the stereowork, three Markss were set up, one on the base oF the bite home base and two on a particular pillar fixed to the tabular array. These, points formed a trigon which, as seen from the camera approximately framed the portion of the patient & A acirc s face which was to be examined. The standard divergence of a volume measuring was estimated to 1.7 three-dimensional centimetres.Marked duplicated dramatis personaes were photographed and the photographic negatives were digitised Biggerstaff ( 1969 ) . The Ten and Y parametric quantities were so converted by computing machine package into mensurable informations to enable conclusion the comparative plane surface countries of crown constituent and the entire comparative plane surface of the Crown. An mean fluctuation between two independent operators was found to be 0.083mm and within one operator to be less than 0.014mm overall. In malice of this manner was allowing merely to bring forth planar consequence, it was claimed to be acceptable method since it could supply a broad scope of surveies.Garner ( 1970 ) developed an cheap method of obtaining permanent records of unwritten and dental alterations ensuing from mechanotherapy, growing, or surgery, without the necessity of keeping extended files of cabinets of plaster dramatis personaes. He used a camera loaded and mounted on one terminal of a fixed tabular array to snap dental dramatis personaes on a platform at the other terminal of the same tabular array. The expo sure were traced and analyzed for alterations in arch signifier and dimensions. A 4 by 5 box camera was mounted on a level tabletop at a fixed distance from a perpendicular platform ( Fig 3 ) . A survey dramatis personae which had been trimmed so its dorsum was parallel to the occlusal plane and grooved for orientation intents was placed on its platform. The dramatis personae was placed on the platform so the occlusal surfaces or ridges were at right angles to the camera lens for snaping. The camera-to-model distance is critical and must stay at a fixed distance to bring forth a 11 image. A 10 2nd exposure of Kodak Professional Fine Grain Positive Film was accomplished by concentrating two 75 Ws outpouring lamps on the theoretical accounts. The lamps were mounted at 450 to the camera lens.Their method of theoretical account analysis was found to be a dependable manner of finding minute alterations in form and signifier every bit good as of entering conditions before and after every day orthodontic intervention. These occlusograms can be maintained indefinitely in the patient s records and could be used for analysis at the operating tabular array or at a staff meeting.Robertson and Kennedey ( 1984 ) developed an accurate and comparatively simple method of photogrammetry suited for orthodontic application. They reviewed five systems of entering photographic informations viz. Moire topography, stereophotogrammetry, morphoanalysis, physioprint and telecentric picture taking ( Robertson, 1976 Robertson and Volp, 1981 ) . They achieved a greater grade of preciseness through the usage of telecentric optics a technique by which an image magnification is made invariant to the place of the detector plane. . Telecentric optics This is achieved by puting a convex lens, of diameter greater than the size of the object to be photographed, in the optical way of the projectors and camera, with the projectors and camera at the chief central point of these lenses. In such an optical agreement, the magnification at the movie plane is changeless, irrespective of the object s place in the object innumerable in forepart of the plano-convex lens. Merely parallel beams of visible radiation from the object are recorded by the camera and divergency is eliminated. The highest degree of truth became more evident when abstracting metrical informations across the dental arch. More than unidimensional and became prone to error when survey theoretical accounts were displaced. This was due to the lessening in the truth of the constituted picture taking for a more while the dimensions for the telecentric method remained comparatively unchanged ( Fig 4 ) . They concluded that telecentric picture taking was found to be really dependable and accurate ( Leishman, 1977 Volp, 1979 ) .
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 10:55 AM
Monday, May 20, 2019
Friedreichs ataxia Friedreichs ataxia is an inherited infirmity that causes progressive damage to the nervous system resulting in things like gait disturbance, speech problems, heart unsoundness and diabetes. Friedreichs ataxia is caused by a defect in a gene called Frataxin, which is located on chromosome 9. The changes in this gene cause the body to produce too much trinucleotide repeat (GAA).This mutation causes gene silencing by means of induction of a heterochromatin structure in a manner similar to position-effect variegation. Normally, the body contains about 8 to 30 copies of GAA, however the people with Friedreichs ataxia whitethorn have as many as 1,000 copies. The more(prenominal) copies of GAA a person has, the earlier the disease will start and the faster it will get worse. Symptoms typically begin sometime between the ages of 5 to 15, but in rare cases, Friedreichs ataxia may occur around the ages of 20 to 30.Some of the symptoms are abnormal speech, changes in visi on (particularly color vision), decrease in ability to feel vibrations in lower limbs, foot problems, hearing loss, jerky eye movements, loss of coordination and balance, obsess falls, muscle weakness, no reflexes in the legs, and uncoordinated movements. Friedreichs ataxia is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. This means you mustiness get a copy of the defective gene from both your mother and father. About 1 in every 22,000-29,000 people develop this disease but family history of the condition raises your chances of getting it.On average, after 10-15 years with the disease patients are usually wheelchair bound and require assistance with all activities. Unfortunately, there is no cognize cure for Friedreichs ataxia. There are, however, medicines, therapy treatments and surgeries available to those who are affected but it will not rid them of the disease. atomic number 22 screws and rods are often inserted in the spine to help prevent or slow the progression of this disea se. The conclusion of surgery is to keep the patient alive as long as possible. As the ataxia progresses, things much(prenominal) as a cane, walker, or wheelchair are required for mobility.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 11:49 AM
Sunday, May 19, 2019
My parents and I had been looking forward to our trip for seeks and everything meet seemed on the button planned and made us all excited as the days got closer. That to me was what it meant when you had a family trip, to me It was a duration where you get excited to be together and work on building this bond that you all make water and just enjoy each others company. You start counting days down and get hyped up absent adjust be at that one place where you know a new level of family heat can be found.You realize that in this place is where any problems can be forgotten unruffled If alone for a temporary time and that you can find new adventure amongst the simplest spot with the close beloved people in your life-time. However sometimes moments can change and be descend ones that will move you for possibly the rest of your life, this is unknowingly what was in store for my family and l. Hernandez 2 Wanting to stay with my Aunt and uncle who lively in Arizona, my parents an d I went for New Years expecting a fun family time.Unexpectedly my fathers grand catch ended up spill away so amongst our trip he decided to stay back for her funeral. Arguing back and forward about what to do occurred with the end result being that my father would stay behind to later come up to Arizona and take us back home at the end of the stay. Unfortunately as time went on through the week my parents continuously fought over the phone to the point where my father told my mother he no longer cute to be with her. This shocked me as I wanted my parents to be together forever, I did non want them to end and I definitely did not want my family to break open up.My mother certainly did not want that so she got my father to be calm enough to outfit that when he came down to Arizona they should in person actually talk things through. The day had later ultimately come where my father was now with us and my mother wanted to set about a thorough conversation with him. Being only 1 3 at the time I was whitewash young and thought rise up they can work it out I know they can, they of all time work their problems out, so there is no way they will break up. However I was so wrong, hearing the words that my father r to my mother truly broke my heart.Saying he no longer loved her and he couldnt be with her candidly shook me to my core, I Just could not believe that right before my eyes I was perceive my parents 1 OFF and that I knew he loved my mother. Being young I could not agree imagined the real reason behind his words that ended up feeling like a natural language in our family back. Believing my fathers words I simply believed that he had fallen out of love with my mother. I did not like it but no matter how much I tried to change my fathers reason he would not budge. therefore, I saw that I had no say in the matter at all that really what I wanted did not nor Hernandez 3 would it ever matter.In having no choice in the matter I matt-up heart broken, my family was simply slipping through my fingers. Being only 13, still so young I would sire neer imagined that behind my fathers words were lies and the fact that he had cheated on my mother. Honestly he became someone different to me at this moment, e was like a stranger, definitely not the father I once was close with. Within finding out this information I helpless all respect for my father and faith that relationships last, even in the belief that families can really always remain together.Saying that my dedicate in people had changed was an understatement, I had went from trusting my father was a great khat to not being able to believe a word he said. In seeing how comfortably my father could brook my mother and Just leave his family made me think if he could do that accordingly why wouldnt someone else I love do that. I began to think that all people especially men were liars and cheaters. I felt that I wouldnt be able to trust again and I wouldnt be able to fall in love or have a family of my own.My thoughts were that two people make promises to love one another for the rest of their lives was Just nothing but a lie. My ability to trust had been completely broken, but within this I also felt abandoned by the one earth who had said he would always be there. My father had lied and in thinking he was Just leaving my mother had left me too, so I believed that was what all men were capable of. I felt that if I gave anyone the lightest ounce of my trust that I would Just get hurt again and being heartsick was not a feeling I wanted to go through yet again in my life.An apology was never even heard through any of it by my father so I Just assumed he didnt care at all. It wasnt until going to a therapist and actually public lecture my feelings out happened that I heard an apology. In hearing that years later at the age of 17 was when I began to realize that no matter what I wish would have happened or wished I could have changed, it Hernandez 4 would never be different. My parents would never be together again and my father loud never undo the hurt he had caused and the anger I had felt towards him.No matter how much I wanted my father to be the same guy I had always looked up to he wouldnt because I had incapacitated my respect for him and my trust in him. Losing my trust in him was one of the hardest things to deal with, but I knew I still loved my father and over time I wanted to be able to have a relationship with him again. In realizing this I saw that I had to move forward in my life and forget the past in order to work at rebuilding my trust not Just within my father but in people in general. That I had to let go of my hurt and anger towards my father in order to have the chance at that new relationship.In simply missing this I knew that looking to the future was the only option no matter how much my past had changed me, thence the past had to remain in the past. I had to mature and be happy moving on and enjoying my l ife, There you have it a family trip turned into a moment that split a family a discover and caused trust issues along with so much hurt and anger. It went from being about relaxation to uncovering lies and deceitfulness in someone who was so beloved to me. Having my trust broken and questioning relationships made me believe I would never be happy.Over time however, I was able to realize that the past had to stay in the past, that I had to only look forward to the future. I knew I wanted to be happy and regain my grit of trust, so slowly piece by piece that has been able to begin to be rebuilt. I still do have issues that I know will take more time to fix, but at least now all I really look forward to is having a bright, happy future. ane where hopefully my relationship with my father can change and be Just as good as it used to be before the New Years trip we had went wrong.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 1:00 PM
Saturday, May 18, 2019
Hugh McCauley, COO of Riordan Manufacturing has submitted service request SR-rm-022. The service request is to integrate existing variety of benignant resource (HR) tools into a single integrated operation (Apollo Group, Inc. 2011). The new carcass testament provide the geological formation with a more sophisticated, state-of-the art, information systems technology than what they currently have to better assist the HR department. in front the approval of the project funding, Hugh McCauley provide subscribe a detailed project think that provides some guidance. limit of the project will complete in six months so utilization of the new system screwing begin in the second quarter of next year (Apollo Group, Inc. 2011). BackgroundInstalled in 1992, Riordan Manufacturings current HRIS system is part of the financial systems package. It keeps track of employees personal information pay rates, personal exemptions for tax purposes, remove date, seniority date, organizational infor mation, and vacation hours. Changes to an employees information is done through a written channel and submitted (on special forms) by the employees manager and entered by the payroll clerk. Training and victimization records ar unbroken in an Excel work sheet of paper by training and development specialist (Apollo Group, Inc. 2011). Applicant information for open positions is hold by each recruiter. Resumes get stored in a central storage ara. An excel spread sheet is used to track the status of applicants.A third party provider manages workers compensation. They keep their sustain records. Individual managers keep employee files because there is no central employee file area. Managers are also trusty for bring in FMLA absences and any requests for accommodation under the ADA. The results of job analyses, salary surveys, and personnel compensation decisions are kept in an excel spreadsheet by the compensation manager. Complaints, grievances, harassment complaints, etc. are tracked by the employee relations specialists and are in locked files in their offices.Information GatheringThe information gathering techniques used to development the requirements of the new system will be done through interviews and joint coating visualize(JAD). Interviews will be conducted on individuals in create virtually the operation and issues of the current system and demand for systems in future organizational activities (Valacich, George, & Hoffer, 2012). In order for the interviews to be effective certain guidelines must be met. The guidelines that will be included in the interview carry out are as follows Plan the interview- Prepare interviewee by making an appointment and explaining the purpose of the interview. Prepare a checklist, an agenda, and questions. Be neutral- Avoid asking leading questions.Listen and take notes- Give your undivided attention to the interviewee and take notes or tape-record the interview (if permission is granted).Review notes Review y our notes within forty-eight hours of the meeting. If you discover follow-up questions or need additional information, contact the interviewee. Seek diverse views- Interview a wide range of people, including potential users and Managers.(Valacich, George, & Hoffer, 2012).Interviews will be conducted on employee managers, the training and development specialists, recruiters, and the third-party provider that handles the workers compensation, compensation manager, and employee relation specialists. The questions that will be asked during the interview process are as follows1. What is your name, job title and the department you work?2. What do you need and why do you need it, what system functionality do you need (18 travel to Selecting a man imagination Information System, 2002)?3. What results do you wish to accomplish with this effort (18 Steps to Selecting a world Resource Information System, 2002)?4. What work processes do you wish to change through this selection and what shou ld the new processes look alike (18 Steps to Selecting a Human Resource Information System, 2002)?5. What are the business drivers for the new system, how does this system offer the overall needs of the business (18 Steps to Selecting a Human Resource Information System, 2002)?Once the interviews are completed by the analyst team up, the interviews will be asked to participate in a joint application design (JAD). The joint application design team will consist of the analyst team, employee managers, the training and development specialists, recruiters, and the third-party provider that handles the workers compensation, compensation manager, and employee relation specialists.The primary purpose of using JAD in the summary phase is to collect systems requirements simultaneously from the key people involved with the system (Valacich, George, & Hoffer, 2012). The JAD will be held at an off-site location in Atlanta, Georgia. Once the team is settled in, the discussion can begin. The i nformation that needs to be discussed and agreed on is as follows1. What type of application are you looking for, standalone PC, networked client/server, or mainframe (18 Steps to Selecting a Human Resource Information System, 2002)?2. What operating system does it need to runnel on Windows NT, UNIX, etc. (18 Steps to Selecting a Human Resource Information System, 2002)?3. If its a database application, what database does your company support, SQL, Oracle, DB2 (18 Steps to Selecting a Human Resource Information System, 2002)?4. How will it connect to remote offices? Does it need to be wind vane deployable (18 Steps to Selecting a Human Resource Information System, 2002)?5. Does it make a difference what language the application is programmed in such as C++ or Visual Basic (18 Steps to Selecting a Human Resource Information System, 2002)?6. Is your IT department planning a major change in technology platforms in the next year (18 Steps to Selecting a Human Resource Information Sys tem, 2002)?Project scope is a project management term for the combined objectives andrequirementsnecessary to complete a project (Project Scope, 2013). Project scope is principal(prenominal) because it allows the system analyst team to estimate costs and the time required to finish the project. A plan is created for the proposed project for the team to follow. This baseline project plan customizes the standardized SDLC and specifies the time and resources needed for its execution (Valacich, George, & Hoffer, 2012).The team analyst believes that it is in the best interest of Riordan Manufacturing to discontinue the use of their old HRIS system and implement a new one. The old system requires paperwork to be filed and stored in unprotected areas. There are several managers responsible for the safety and protection of pertinent employee information that should be kept in a locked and secure area. ConclusionRiordan Manufacturing has interpreted the correct steps in implementing a new H RIS system. The guidelines have been set and a team has been formed to discuss what the new system should include. The next step is to decide on what system to use and how the design should be. What security controls should be set and the tools that will be applied in the terms of data, processes, interfaces, and network.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 2:11 PM
Friday, May 17, 2019
reason BRANT FREEZER COMPANY Question 1 When comparing carrying into action during the first five months of 2004 with performance in 2003, which wargonho single-valued function shows the most improvement? St. Louis is the only one showing any improvement, using embody per unit shipped as the performance criterion. The cost for the first five months of 2003 was $9. 97 and for the first five months of 2004, it trim down to $9. 07. Question 2 When comparing performance during the first five months of 2004 with performance in 2003, which w arehouse shows the poorest transfer in performance?The worst change is the companys own warehouse (located in Fargo), where cost per unit shipped increased 31%. Among the public warehouses used, capital of Colorado was the worst in terms of cost per unit handled. It is also the most expensive public warehouse that brent uses. Question 3 When comparisons are do among all eight warehouses, which one do you think does the best job for the Brant Co mpany? What criteria did you use? Why? Using the cost per unit handled criterion, St.Louis does the best job, closely followed by Chicago. Question 4 J. Q. is combative and is going to recommend that his father cancel the contract with one of the warehouses and give that business to a competing warehouse in the same city. J. Q. feels that when word of this gets around, the other warehouses they use will shape up. Which of the seven should J. Q. recommend be dropped? Why? Denver has the lowest volume and highest unit be among all the public warehouses used.In addition, it had been closed by a strike which must have inconvenienced the Brant Company. It may be that the warehouse workers unions are backbreaking in the Denver area. J. Q. should probably check out rates and productivity measures of other Denver warehouses onward deciding to drop its current warehouse there. Question 5 The year 2004 is nearly half over. J. Q. is told to insure how untold the firm is likely to spend for warehousing at individually of the eight warehouses for the last hexad months of 2004.Do his work for him. There is not enough information to do a very precise forecast. J. Q. assumes that the ratio of be occurring during the first five months of 2003 should be in the same proportion in 2004. (1) (2) (3) (4) Warehouse repair % 2003 cost occurring in first five months Actual costs for first five months of 2004 ($) Projected native costs in 2004 ($) Projected costs in the last sextet months of 2004 ($) Atlanta 22. 88 40,228 175,822 116,204capital of Massachusetts 44. 00 29,416 66,885 32,085 Chicago 53. 43 141,222 264,312 105,556 Denver 35. 00 14,900 42,571 23,714 Fargo 54. 00 9,605 17,787 7,012 Los Angeles 72. 20 93,280 129,197 30,781 Portland 49. 30 42,616 86,442 37,559 St. Louis 44. 80 19,191 42,837 20,265 The projected costs in 2004 (column 3) are reckon by dividing the actual costs for the first five months of 2004 (column 2) by the percent of 2003 costs that occurred in the first five months (column 1).For example, Atlantas actual 2004 costs of $40,228 divided by 2003s 22. 88% yields projected 2004 costs of approximately $175,822. The projected costs in the last six months of 2004 (column 4) are calculated by subtracting the actual costs for the first five months of 2004 (column 2) from 2004s projected total costs (column 3). This gives us the projected costs for the last seven months of 2004. However, we are only interested in the last six months of 2004, so this number is multiplied by 6/7, or . 857.Continuing with Atlanta, 2004s projected total costs of $175,822 minus the first five months actual costs of $40,228 equals $135,394. Multiplying this by 6/7 yields projected six months costs of approximately $116,204. Question 6 When comparing 2003 figures with the 2004 figures shown in Exhibit 13-A, the amount budgeted for each warehouse in 2004 was greater than actual 2003 costs. How practically of the increase is caused by increased volume of business (units shipped) and how much by inflation? There are several ways to approach this question. oneness involves calculating the volume conflict and inflation difference for each warehouse, as follows Volume difference = 2003 unit costs x (2004 units shipped 2003 units shipped) largeness difference = 2004 units shipped x (2004 unit costs 2003 unit costs) For example, Atlantas volume and inflation differences are Volume difference $8. 99 x (18,000 17,431) = $8. 99 x 569 = $5,115 Inflation difference 18,000 x ($9. 97 $8. 99) = 18,000 x $. 98 = $17,640 Question 7 Prepare the firms 2005 warehousing budget, showing for each warehouse the anticipated number of units to be shipped and the costs.Again, this can be done in several ways. One is to assume that the 2004 to 2005 increases will be exactly the same amount as the 2003 to 2004 increases (with units shipped rounded to the nearest hundred, and costs rounded to the nearest $500). This would yield the following results Ware house location Differences in units shipped b/w 2003 and 2004 Units shippedin 2004 Projected units shipped in 2005 Difference in warehouse costs b/w 2003 and 2004 ($) Warehouse costs in 2004 ($) Projected warehouse costs in 2005 ($) Atlanta 600 18,000 18,600 21,000 178,000 199,000 Boston 300 7,200 7,500 9,500 73,000 82,500Chicago 1,900 30,000 31,900 38,500 285,000 323,500 Denver 100 3,100 3,200 3,000 31,000 34,000 Fargo 0 2,000 2,000 500 17,000 17,500 Los Angeles 500 17,000 17,500 24,000 176,000 200,000 Portland 700 9,000 9,700 12,000 85,000 97,000 St. Louis 2,100 8,000 10,100 4,000 56,000 60,000 Another method would use percentage changes. Question 8 While attending classes at the university, J.Q. had learned of logistics partnerships. Should Brant Freezer Company attempt to enter into a partnership relationship with these warehouses? If so, what approach should it use? Assuming that a partnership approach was to be used, Brant would have to think of some sort of sharing of potenti al risks and profits. Offhand, the case does not provide much information to go on, other than cost containment or reduction is an issue.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 3:35 PM