Saturday, August 31, 2019
Girl Guides are organised into units/troops averaging 20-30 girls under guidance of a team of leaders. Units subdivide into patrols of about six Guides and engage in outdoor and special interest activities. Units may affiliate with national and international organisations. Some units, especially in Europe, have been co-educational since the 1970s, allowing boys and girls to work together as Scouts. There are other programme sections for older and younger girls. Contents 1 Naming 2 Key points 3 Unit affiliation 4 Uniforms 5 Lones 6 See also 7 References Naming Robert Baden-Powell was a famous soldier who fought in the Boer War in South Africa at the beginning of the 20th century. During the Siege of Mafeking, when the town and British soldiers were besieged by Boer soldiers, B-P noticed how the young boys made themselves useful by carrying messages for the soldiers. When he came home, he decided to put some of his Scouting ideas into practice to see if they would be any good for young boys and took 21 boys camping on Brownsea Island, near Poole in Dorset. The camp was a success, and B-P wrote his book Scouting for Boys, covering tracking, signaling, cooking etc. Soon boys began to organize themselves into Patrols and Troops and called themselves Ã¢â¬Å"Boy ScoutsÃ¢â¬ . Girls bought the book as well and formed themselves into Patrols of Girl Scouts. In 1909 there was a Boy Scout Rally at Crystal Palace in London. Among all the thousands of Boy Scouts there was also a group of girls from Pinkneys Green, in Berkshire, who spoke to B-P and asked him to let girls be Scouts. B-P decided to take action. Eerste Nederlandsche Meisjes Gezellen Vereeniging (First Dutch Girls Companions Society), 1911, first Dutch Girl Guides In those days, for girls to camp and hike was not common, as this extract from the Scout newspaper shows: Ã¢â¬Å"If a girl is not allowed to run, or even hurry, to swim, ride a bike, or raise her arms above her head, how can she become a Scout?Ã¢â¬  B-PÃ¢â¬â¢s career had been in the British Army. There was an Indian regiment called the Khyber Guides who served on the north-west frontier of India. B-P persuaded the girl Ã¢â¬Å"ScoutsÃ¢â¬ that Guides was a very special name of which they could be proud. So, in 1910 the first Girl Guides began. Since 1910 Guides have spread and there are now millions of Guides worldwide. The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) was formed to link together Guides. In some countries the girls preferred to call themselves Ã¢â¬ËGirl ScoutsÃ¢â¬â¢. (Reference: Ã¢â¬ËThe Guide HandbookÃ¢â¬â¢, London: The Guide Association, 1996) The first Guide Company was 1st Pinkneys Green Guides (Miss Baden PowellÃ¢â¬â¢s Own), who still exist in Pinkneys Green, Maidenhead in the English county of Berkshire. Polish Girl Guides by the monument to Small Partisan in Warsaw Key points Things that are shared amongst all Guide Units are: The Guide Promise Ã¢â¬â Girls become Guides by making their Promise. Each country has its own Promise but all have the same 3 parts: duty to God or to your religion; duty to your country; keeping the Guide Law. The Good Turn Ã¢â¬â each Guide tries to do a kind thing for someone else, without payment and without being asked, every day. The World Badge Ã¢â¬â this can be worn on uniform or ordinary clothes. The three leaves of the trefoil stand for the threefold Promise. The vein in the centre is a compass needle, pointing the way and the two stars stand for the Promise and the Law. The colours stand for the golden sun shining over all the children of the world, from a blue sky. This badge is a guiding symbol that can be recognized all over the world. The World Flag Ã¢â¬â this is in the same colours as the World Badge and can be carried or flown by any member of the movement. It is often used as the Unit Flag. The three yellow blocks represent the threefold Promise and the white corner represents the commitment to peace of all WAGGGsÃ¢â¬â¢ members. The Guide Sign Ã¢â¬â the three fingers stand for the three parts of the Promise. The Guide sign is used when making or renewing the Promise and can be used when meeting other Guides. It may also be used when receiving a badge or at the end of meetings. The Motto Ã¢â¬â Be Prepared Ã¢â¬â This means that Guides are ready to cope with anything that might come their way.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 2:38 AM
Friday, August 30, 2019
A.C 1.2- Outline the benefits of working with an individual with dementia in a person-centred manner It is important to work with an individual with dementia in a person-centred manner in other to meet the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and to provide the best quality care service. The benefits include to ensure quality of life of the individual and to treat the individual as deem fit and necessary. To place the individual at the centre values, individuality i.e. everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s differences must be recognized and respected. Choice, privacy, information and activities must be kept confidential. Individual must be empowered to do activities for themselves which means individual must be independent. It is vital for the social care worker to work using these precise methods to establish the needs and wishes of the individual. This will also mean that individuals will feel empowered and in control of their lives, be more confident about making decisions, will feel valued and respected. A.C. 1.3 Ã¢â¬â Why risk-taking can be part of a person-centred approach see more:define person centred planning Life itself is a risk. We take risk in our daily lives. The person-centred approach to risk includes making an assessment with the people involved in the plan such as the individual, their relatives and other professionals. Risk taking is part of a person-centred approach as this empowers individuals to have choices about what they want to do in their lives as well as to be part of their community. Not allowing individuals to take risks can have a negative impact on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life which may negate the way they which to live. Taking risks means that you are able to decide and be in control of what you do. You need to ensure that a concern about taking risks is not stopping you living the way you want to. A.C. 2.1 Ã¢â¬â Describe the role that carers can have in the care and support of individuals with dementia A.C.2.2 Ã¢â¬â Explain the value of developing a professional working relationship with carers Every day we make many choices. All choices are important, even though some of them are very small. Day-to day choices are often about the cloth we wear, the food we eat, how we spend our money and who we spend time with. Other choices we make include where to work and who to live with, where to live and where to go on holiday. We probably take the freedom to make these choices for granted, but these choices are often made for people with learning disabilities, without paying attention to their wishes. Choice is not only for people who can speak for themselves. People with severe or profound learning disabilities can make many choices for themselves. We will need to develop our observation skills to discover the way in which the person we support expresses their preferences. Over time we will be able to build up a more detailed understanding of how they communicate their likes and dislike s. We can then use this information to involve the person in making more choices. Having choice over a particular part of our life means we have control. This is good for our emotional and mental health, and helps us to feel a real part of the community. Part of our task is ensuring that people with learning difficulties have choice in their lives. Privacy is a basic human need. We all need to do some things alone and to have time to ourselves to do as we please. Our need for privacy depends on our personality, interests and circumstances. We must respect peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s need for privacy whenever it arises. If our work involves supporting a person with their personal care, we will need to makeÃ particular efforts to ensure privacy for them. We are dependent on other people for all aspects of our daily life. Think about the supply of electricity and water to our homes, the food we eat and the transport we use, not to mention access to communication technology such as phones, Television and the internet. More importantly, we are dependent on those close to us for their love, support and affection. It is more accurate to say that we are all independent. We need other people in all areas of our life. There are, however, different types of independence. We can see this with children, as they grow from being totally dependent babies to much more independent teenagers. Gradually, people with learning disabilities are taking more control of their lives. But even today, people with learning disabilities are often on the receiving end of other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions and planning. They may not have the power to decide on their own lifestyle. Other people, such as service providers, family or support workers, often make these decision for them. Others may be well supported, but lack the confidence or experience to take control of their lives. We have a vitally important role in the empowerment of people with learning disabilities to become independent. People with learning disabilities have the same rights as every other citizen in our society. The fundamental principle means that people with learning disabilities should never be treated in an inhuman or degrading way. They should always be treated politely, and as people of value in their own right. The way ourselves and our colleagues behave towards the people with learning disabilities we support affects the way that other people see them, and the way they see themselves. We should always show consideration to the people with learning disabilities that we work with. Our actions and attitudes should show that everyone is worthy of respect. Every day in our work as a learning disabilities worker, we are a partner with a person with disability we support. We are working with them so that they can fulfill their dreams and ambitions, and so that we can assist them their particular needs. Partnership also involves other people working together, to meet the needs of people with learning disabilities as fully as possible. This may include partnership with other professionals such as social workers, GPs, Physiologists, Psychiatrists, and speech and language therapist. The families of the people with learning disabilities we support are often very important partners in our work. Most family carersÃ have a wealth of knowledge and experience about their family member. They know their likes and dislikes, their personal history and any other particular medical needs. They are often more than happy to share what they know with new workers. When asking family carers for information, it is important to remember that some families have seen many workers come and go in their relativeÃ¢â¬â¢s life. They may have repeated the same information very many times. Some may feel disillusioned of past experiences when things have not changed as they had hoped. A major aspect of partnership working is bringing together in an atmosphere where this is simply the accepted way of doing things. In this type of working environment, training, attitudes, procedures and quality standards all have partnership as one of their goals. Successful partnership depend to a large extent upon the amount of effort put into creating an environment in which joint working is seen simply as the way things are done. Discrimination against people with learning disabilities and their families often results in the unfair and unequal treatment of people just because of their learning disability. People with learning disabilities may not be allowed the freedom and opportunities which the Human Rights Act and other laws encourage. They often face prejudice and discrimination. They may be treated unequally and unjustly and denied the opportunities that should be available to them, just as they are to other citizens. Equal opportunities mean that people with learning disabilities should: No longer be marginalized and isolated within society Have the same social statues as other people No longer be subject to exploitation and abuse Have their opinions taken seriously Have their adult status recognized Have the same citizenship right as other people. Failure to give equal opportunities to people with learning disabilities denies our common humanity. It causes anger, frustration, despair, hopelessness and loneliness for the people involved, and keeps them powerless and dependent. The General Social Care Council (GSCC) is the organization set up by the government in 2001 to register and regulate all social care workers. It has produced a Code of Practice which states that social care workers should work in a certain way. A.C 3.1 Ã¢â¬â Describe the roles of others in the care and support of individuals with dementia It is fundamental ethical principle that every person has the right to determine what happens to his/her own body. This right is reflected in the Rules of professional Conduct and the Core Standards of Physiotherapy practice and is also protected by law. Touching a patient prior to obtaining valid consent may constitute battery under civil or criminal law, or in some circumstances, sexual assault. However, it is important to gain patientÃ¢â¬â¢s consent prior to assessment treatment. It is also a matter of common courtesy between the patient and the care assistant and helps to establish a relationship of trust and confidence. Evidence shows that where such a relationship exists, patients are less likely to take a legal action, and this could be why legal action against care assistants is rare. As a broad principle consent should be gained for all activities, even if we want to plump someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s pillows. It is important that people not only give their consent but also fully unde rstand what they are consenting to and the implications. Consent can be implied, verbal, informal or written. Gaining consent protects both the carer and the person against legal challenges. A health care service consent document supports the rights of patients and families to be informed about the benefit and risk of a proposed treatment or procedure and to make a voluntary decision as to whether to proceed or not. The following must be considered when making a valid consent: i. the patient must have capacity to consent i.e. be mentally competent. ii. Consent must be voluntary i.e the patient must not be acting under duress. iii. The patients must have received sufficient information to make a decision about their treatment. A.C 3.2 Ã¢â¬â Explain when it may be necessary to refer to others when supporting individuals with dementia To established consent for an activity or action we have to explain the activity or action to the other party so they have the correct information to make an inform decision. If the persons lacks the capacity to make informed decisions alone then we will need to establish who else need to be involved. This information is usually found in theÃ personÃ¢â¬â¢s care of plan or in a communication chart established to cover a range of circumstances. To establish consent to an action or activity we need to: Explain what it is using language familiar to the individual Describe what the action or activity involves Explain the benefits to the individual Explain any potential or actual risks involved in doing it and not doing it Listen to and observe the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s response Encourage the individual to ask questions Give the individual time to process the information Confirm consent again immediately prior to any action or activity. A.C 3.3 Ã¢â¬â Explain how to access the additional support of others when supporting individuals with dementia Consent (permission) must be given before care can be to a person. To even touch a person when forbidden, can be consider assault. If there is nobody available when an intoxicated, unconscious or impaired individual presents for care, consent is Ã¢â¬Å"impliedÃ¢â¬ , as there is nobody to give that consent. It is assumed that consent would be given by family or that person, if they were able to communicate that. The only time that we cannot take saving measures, is when there is a Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) order on that patient. It is considered an emergency if a person is apparently experiencing severe suffering or is at risk of sustaining serious bodily harm. The expectation for emergency treatment applies if: the patient is mentally incapable of making the treatment decision. The delay required to obtain consent will prolong the suffering or put the person at risk of sustaining serious bodily harm. The expectation for emergency treatment also applies if: the patient is apparently capable, but communication cannot occur because of a language barrier or a disability. Reasonable steps have been taken to find a practical means of communicating with the patient but such steps have been unsuccessful, and the delay required to find a practical means to communicate will prolong suffering or put the person at risk of sustaining serious bodily harm in addition, a health practitioner who believes that a person is mentally incapable, or where communication cannot take place afterÃ reasonable steps have been taken, may conduct an examination or diagnostic procedure without consent, if the examination or diagnostic procedure is reasonable necessary to determine whether there is emergency. If a patient presents in an emergency situation, is unconscious, mentally incapable, and with no family available, and no advance directive in place, it is considered reasonable to treat the patient. It is assumed that under these conditions, the patient would consent to treat. If there is a language barrier, and the patient is otherwise capable of giving consent, a reasonable effort must be made to find an interpreter, which includes using the ones through the phone companies. If the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life is in danger, and there is nobody who can communicate with them, then with careful documentation, treatment can be delivered. A.C 4.1 Ã¢â¬â Demonstrate how to use a person-centred thinking tool in relation to own life to identify what is working and not working People who use services and carers are becoming more active participants in social care provision, training and employment. They are no longer the passive recipients of service. Skills for care committed to ensuring people who use services and carers get an opportunity to have their say and participate in projects, to ensure that activities undertaken by Skills for Care reflect their need, wants and aspirations. Providing individual with empowerment is important. Empowerment is about enabling the individuals we support to contribute and have an influence over the issues which affect the way they live. When individuals make choices, they have more control and feel valued. It is important that we support empowerment of the individuals we work with. Providing individuals with empowerment to make informed choices enables individuals to maintain their rights of choice, equality and opportunity. Active participation is ways of working that recognize an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to participate in the activities and relationship of their own care or support, rather than just a recipient. Being part of a community is particularly important to individuals who live on their and do not work. It does not matter what kind of something will give them a sense of belonging, a feeling of self-worth and independence. A.C. 4.2 Describe own relationship circle 4.3 Describe how helpful using a person-centred thinking tool was to identify actions in relation to own life Putting active participation into practice means being able to recognize and reduce potential barriers to its implementation. Barriers to implementing an active participation approach can occur where the health and social practitioners: lack understanding of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality, history, health and cognitive status and social abilities View the person as a passive recipient of care who is always dependent on others Have low expectations of the personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to develop, change and achieve We are not committed to making an active participation approach to work Lack creativity and flexibility and flexibility in thinking about ways of providing care or support Lack patience and tenacity when pursuing active participation goals Have inconsistent approach, and does not integrate active participation into our care practice to the extent that it becomes part and parcel of our daily care practice Changing attitudes is the key to reducing barriers to active participation. Improving societyÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes to, and expectations of, people with disabilities is an important part of this involving the individual and all those people who are significant to them is also crucial to success. A.C. 5.1 Ã¢â¬â Use person-centred thinking to know and act on what is important to the individual In order to enable individual to make an informed choice, both us and the individual first need to think about what all of the available options are. We are then need to look at what are good and bad about each option. Health and safety are important factors and must be put first for us, the individual and anyone else involved. The Mental Capacity Act in other Standards provides the legal framework for capacity and decision making about health and social care and financial decisions which applies to everyone aged over 16. We will need to consider whether the person we are supporting has capacity to make informed decision s or we need a formal mental capacity review. It is important to note that a person is assumed to have capacity unless it is proved otherwise. There is a four-step way to test for capacity: a person must be able to: Understand the information relevant to a decision Retain the information Use the information as part of decision making process Communicate their decision In supporting a person to make a decision, we have a duty to assist the person in all four of these steps. For example, using appropriate communication methods to help the person to understand and communicate. Capacity is assessed specific to each decision and occasion. For example, a person may have capacity to make a decision in the Moring about what to wear, but not later day in deciding if they want to move home. If someone is assessed as lacking capacity, any decision taken on their behalf must be in their best interests and we must consider if there are less restrictive options. For example, if a decision can be delay until a person is less distressed this is the best course of action. However, if a person does have capacity this over-rides what we may consider as an unwise decision. A.C. 5.2 Establish with the individual how they want to be supported Each individual have a formal assessment as part of their care and support plan. The assessment should contain information about the individual and the type of care and support they need. It will provide the most appropriate options for keeping the individual and anyone else as safe as possible. It will also tell us how to do some tasks where these tasks have been risk assessed and the best option has been established. A particular way of moving and handling is recommended for Mr. X because he has health issues that mean he or she can only be moved another way. Mr. X does not like being moved this way and asks to be moved another way. We should always follow the risk assessment. We should report Mr XÃ¢â¬â¢s request to our supervisor/manager. If we are appropriately trained in risk assessment and moving and handling and the change Mr X requires is minor, we may be able to make this change. We should never make changes unless we are trained or our supervisor or manager confirms we can make the change. We should always record any changes in Mr XÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes and in the way we perform tasks. Every effort should be made to support Mr X to be moved in the way he wants to be moved. He has the right to make this choice but an appropriately trainedÃ person will need to review the risk assessment first and work out if it is safe for all involved for Mr X to be moved in the way he wishes. A.C. 5.3 Ã¢â¬â Use person-centred thinking to know and respond to how the individual communicates 5.4 Ã¢â¬â Be Responsive to how an individual makes decisions to support them to have maximum choice and control in their life When an individual has made decision which we feel is risky, we need to make the individual aware of any consequences involved in the decision; however we should not try to influence the individual with our view or opinions. It is the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom of choice to make decisions about their own future and support. Providing they have the right information to make an informed choice and have the capacity to understand their choice; it is part of our duty of care to enable them to do so. Referring to Mr. X in 5.2 above, we might not approve of or like the choice he has made. We might need more moving and handling training, perhaps for a specialist piece of equipment. However, the choice is not ours and we are not allowed to influence Mr X. in suppor ting Mr X to make his decision, we need to listen to him and put his wishes and best interests first. This means the service must be provided in the way Mr X would like, as long as it is safe and approved through care and support plans and risk assessment. This is because the choices belong to Mr x, not to us. He needs to make his own decisions in order to feel he is in control of what happens to him. This leads to positive feelings around dignity, pride and satisfaction. If relative or friend has made a decision about individualÃ¢â¬â¢s care, support or life that the individual is not happy or comfortable with, we may need to support the individual to question or challenge the decision. It is important that we obtain and understand the facts and reasons surrounding the decision so we can make sure the individual has a clear understanding If the individual remains sure that he or she is not happy with the decision, once he or she has this information, we can work with the individual to support them to challenge the decision. Any changes that are made as a result of this change must be safe for us, the individual and anyone else involved. We should never make changes unless we are trained to do so or our supervisor or manager confirms we can make the change. We should always record any changes in individualÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes and in the way we perform tasks.Ã It is essential that we understand the Mental Capacity Act and how to work within itÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements every day with every individual. A.C. 6.1- Explain how individual identity and self-esteem are linked with wellbeing Spiritual well being is an integral part of mental, emotional and physical health. It can be associated with a specific religion but does not have to be. It is about an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s own journey to discover things of importance in their lives and enabling them to find purpose and meaning in life. The effects and impact of spiritual well-being is determined by each individual and can make a huge impact on their lives. Through spiritual well-being, individual can become empowered and realize that even though they have issues, stressors, and challenges, they are not define by their circumstances. In realizing this individualÃ¢â¬â¢s gain greater peace, better freedom of self expression, increased manageable over the healing and support process and higher self-esteem. A few of the numerous benefits of spiritual well-being include: Feeling content with our lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s situation Making time to spend alone and find inner peace Taking time to reflect and resolve lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s issues Finding satisfaction in a job well done. Taking part in an active lifestyle rather than merely standing by and watching life as it passes Maintaining balance and control of life Building relationships Feeling purpose and meaning in life Accepting and growing from challenges of life Emotional well-being is based on how individuals feel about themselves. Someone who is emotionally healthy: Understands and adapt to changes Copes with stress Has a positive outlook on life and themselves Has the ability to love and care for others Can act independently to meet his or own needs Everyone, including people who are emotionally healthy, have problems. If something or someone threatens our happiness or well-being, we would feelÃ uncomfortable emotions such as anger, sadness or fear. When we experience something that enhances our situation, we feel emotions such as joy, satisfaction or a sense of achievement. The way we are brought up and our culture have a great influence on how we feel. They help us to form ideas and decide what we care about. Everyone deals with situations in life differently. What may seem unimportant to our closest friend might be upsetting to us. Sometimes an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem (the way they feel about themselves) can become so low that everything seems a lot harder to cope with compared with when they are feeling confident. Being emotionally healthy does not mean that we feel happy all the time. Good emotional health is about having lots of different emotions, and being able to accept them and talk about them. Signs that Individuals are not coping well emotionally might include having a lack of self-confidence, having trouble with relationship or feeling unhappy a lot of the time. A.C. Ã¢â¬â 6.2 Describe attitudes and approaches that are likely to promote an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing Because we are so different and diverse, we have different and diverse views about every subject. We may not approve of or agree with the views of individual we support but our role is about working with them in ways that support their views. The best way to find out about an individual is to ask questions that are not threatening but show us have a genuine interest in the individual. By encouraging them to talk about themselves and listening to their views, as we will learn a great deal about the individuals we work with. Through this learning, we will be able to meet their needs in ways that are sensitive and supportive of their views making individual feel valued. Our role is to support individuals to feel emotional well-being and to feel emotional wellbeing, individuals need to feel: Appreciated, cared about and loved Safe and secure Extra supported when they feel sad, depressed or lonely That they are not a burden but an important priority Listened to and respected Satisfied with relationships Independent and in control of their lives That they have a purpose and meaning to their lives We will need good communication skills and be able to listen but also to encourage individuals and show understanding and support for what is important to them in life. We could suggest that the individual organizes for someone from their faith or community group. It might be possible for someone from the group to organize travel and support arrangements whilst the individual attend the group. A.C. Ã¢â¬â 6.3 Ã¢â¬â Support an individual in a way that promotes a sense of identity and self-esteem Each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s spirituality is greatly impacted by the community they are a part of and the relationships they take part in. Spiritual wellbeing is not a practice of isolation but rather of affecting and involving the people around the individual. Spiritual well-being groups and sessions could provide an open and save environment to explore, learn, practice, support and heal. This safe-haven offered in such a group is important to individuals who experience difficulties in their lives. Individuals may be able to find spiritual well-being programs in their local areas. These may include group exploration and experimental practices on the topics of meditation, prayer, forgiveness, personal values, and purpose in life, the role of self-esteem in spiritual connection, healthy relationships and developing an authentic relationship with a higher Power, or God. A.C. Ã¢â¬â 6.4 Demonstrate ways to contribute to an environment that promotes well-being By promoting an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual and emotional wellbeing, we can help improve their self esteem and make them valued and remain their own person. Building an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self esteem is a first step towards the happiness and emotional well-being of the individuals we support. Focusing on what they can do rather than on what they cannot do, will encourage their independence and feeling of self worth. It is also important to help individuals to deal with stress. Changes in situations and in their ability to do things can cause stress. However, by providing encouragement and positive support we can improve their inner self and quality of life. By providing emotional support, understanding and good quality care, we can improve on individualÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence, promoting spiritual and emotional well-being.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 5:00 AM
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Three organisations - Essay Example The hotel has has different tariff rates for different rooms. However currently, a standard double room is priced at Ã¢â ¤115, superior double at Ã¢â ¤125, garden double at Ã¢â ¤155 are and suites are given away for Ã¢â ¤225 per night. The hotel experiences a mix of customers ranging from travelers and adventurists to businessmen and people who just want to try out different places to live in. The hotel serves its customers really well and it can be clearly from customers reviews on the Trip Advisor website. The name Harts Hotel is a brand in itself. People who come to Nottingham city often prefer living here due to the reputations this hotel has earned over the years. The Harts Restaurant is located about twenty minutes away from the hotel and is one of the most high class dining places in the city since 1997. Other then that, Harts Upstairs is also a favorite spot for private parties and other personal meet ups. These three names carry a strong brand image with themselves. Katinka Rieger is the General Manager at the Harts Hotel since 2009. Hailing from Germany and having a lot of experience in event management and hotel operations, she makes sure the interests of the clients are given top priority. She makes sure that the employees are trained in a manner so that their top priority becomes the service and well being of the customers. The World Service Restaurant is an elegant place for dining out in Nottingham. It is perfectly located in the serene surroundings of the Newsdigate House, and offers its visitors to experience the customs and culture that the city has to offer. The World Service restaurant features three dining areas namely the Marshall Room, Blenheim Room and Tallard Room. Other then it also offers private rooms for small parties, a garden restaurant and the famous lounge bar. According to customer reviews the hotel offers really tasty food and the standard of service is part excellence. The waiters
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 7:22 AM
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Cultural Tourism - Essay Example In looking at the official national website for Sri Lanka tourism, the first word that appears is heritage. This indicates a strong need for the country to promote the historical value of its country as being central to the event of a vacation within their borders. The website promotes a sense of otherness, attuned to Western sensibilities, through depicting men sitting on elephants, a lounging leopard, and an exotic woman reclining in what appears to be a spa atmosphere. The experience is connected back to the Western traveler through an image of a Caucasian man on a surfboard and a modern look at a beach. The emphasis is on the exotic, with a connection to the modern Western ideal in order to attract a broad set of travelers. The official national website for the Maldives has a picture of a surfer, swimming below the water towards the surface on a submerged board. The image evokes the sense of the beach, a cool splash of water against the heat of the sun. The first sub-category tha t is presented is titled culture. Just like the Sri Lanka website, the first promotional factor is the differences in culture that a Western traveler would encounter when visiting the country. The two subsequent headings promote diving and the opportunity for a honeymoon in the Maldives. The website reveals the daily temperature and has links to further information about where to stay and where to go, just like the Sri Lanka website. The otherness that is expressed in both websites leads the traveler towards thoughts of adventure. In creating an enticement to travel to the region, the websites are intended to evoke a sense of newness of experience so that the traveler will want to know what they do not yet know. The imagery also suggests that the locations have the element of the exotic, the Ã¢â¬Å"erotics of imperial conquestÃ¢â¬ as explored by McClintock (24). While the eroticism is not blatant, the notion that the locations will bring to the vacationer an experience that is de fined by adventure suggests that the attendee will be able to conquer an unknown territory. The use of the woman in the spa-like atmosphere on the advertisement for Sri Lanka can be linked to the desire to equate sensuality with the experience of visiting the island. McClintock states that Ã¢â¬Å"women served as mediating and threshold figures by means of which men oriented themselves in space, as agents of power and agents of knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (24). The boundaries of the world have been typically characterized as women, objectifying the presence of the female spirit within the framework of territory. Through using a female image in a position of sensuality, this concept is continued into the modern day discourse about the experience of visiting a new land, thus having conquered that experience. The Maldives have a different approach to enticing their visitors. The site is full of images of the rich blue of the sea in contrast to the strand of islands. Several images of surfers, thei r boards planted beneath their feet and their bodies arched in control of their activity, grace the pages of their website. This evokes a different type of feeling towards the experience. This suggests that the natural environment is what will be conquered in visiting the isla
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 9:36 AM
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Professional Values and Ethics Paper - Essay Example it for work that we have not done.Ã¢â¬ (OLeary) The struggle for existence is immense in the current world and hence people quiet often keep values and morality at some convenient places alone rather than the entire life situations. Those who stick with morality or values may be seen as fools by the current world. Only those people who have sound insight over their life philosophy may try to adhere with values in their professional life. But it is necessary to keep values at the higher places to avoid unnecessary problems even in the current professional world. Ã¢â¬Å"The concept of Professional Ethics is partly comprised of what a professional should or should not do in the work placeÃ¢â¬ (Mclarty, Mcburney &Stevetuff) I know a person who has been promoted for the high degree of values and ethics exhibited at work place. This fellow was working in the planning department and forced to continue in the second shift because of his relieverÃ¢â¬â¢s absenteeism. Unfortunately, even the person who was supposed to come in the third shift was also absent on that particular day and my friend decided to stay back even for the third shift in order to keep the planning processes intact. The plant manager has noticed his commitment and immediately he arranged vehicle and send him back to his home after the essential jobs were completed. In response to the high degree of commitment exhibited by my friend, he has been promoted immediately. Ã¢â¬Å"Professional Ethics concerns ones conduct of behavior and practice when carrying out professional work.Ã¢â¬ (Davison & Kock) It is possible for an employee to leak out the company secrets to its competitors for individual benefits. But such habits will definitely adversely affect the organization in which he is working. For example, if a company develops a new product to capture the market, the whole things about the new product and its specialties may be needed to keep as a secret up to certain time period for the success of the product. If an
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 12:05 PM
Monday, August 26, 2019
Ross-Cultural Awareness Impacts on Communication Skills - Essay Example One culture might have different meanings than another. In these regards, they are not trying to be disrespectful, yet may be perceived as such. I also believe cultural awareness will help me develop strategies and create much more effective advertisements for my company. Some words and jokes might not be easily translated and sometimes you may need to adapt your marketing policy or modify your product to that region. Trompenaar noted that understanding cultural differences gives clues about how people solve their problems. With proper knowledge you can see opportunities in the area and expand your business. Cross-cultural awareness removes the barriers between people and provides healthier relationships. With knowledge of verbal cultural differences, I hope to communicate with people from different ethnic backgrounds more efficiently. When IÃ¢â¬â¢m communicating with people, I need to choose my words more sensibly to not offend them. Another point with this knowledge is that I wil l become more tolerant with people because I will know that they are not trying to be disrespectful or arrogant; it is part of their culture. As communication largely occurs through verbal elements, I believe that gaining an increased understanding of different languages will in-turn contribute to greater amounts of cultural understanding. The improvement of this cultural understanding will then extend to areas that are not simply linked to language, but also will include a more comprehensive recognition of the deep and meaningful elements.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 2:38 PM
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Personal Management Framework Paper Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Personal Management Framework Paper - Assignment Example o use their physical attributes to do their work and knowledge workers are referred to the group of workers who complete their task using their intelligence rather than their body, e.g. technologists or software developers. This concept was previously introduced by Karl Marx and after that many authors, publishers and theorists tried to conclude to the concept, but their drawback was that none of them had practical experience about the scenario. Shortly, a name was introduced in the concept having both theoretical and practical knowledge of the working environment. Fredrick Winslow Taylor was the first person to relate the pre-assumed concept of productivity of workers with the reality which in turn helped the concept to focus on increasing the productivity of workers and develop the economy (Drucker, 1999, p. 79). The concept since then, passing through different phases came to be known as TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s Scientific Management Theory. As well as many other researchers and theorists namely, Gilbreth, Maslow and others made their own conclusions and theories. All these approaches are from then practiced in the practical work field with an aim to enhance the productivity of workers. This paper shall aim at relating the assumptions, values, beliefs and modern day practices with the different related theories and try to conclude a relative measure for the betterment of the productivity of both knowledge and manual workers. With due course of time the organizational structure today; have become more challenging, huge and complex. This change has resulted to the inappropriate evaluation of the worker productivity in many cases. To analyze and improve worker productivity no particular theory can prove itself perfect in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s situation. Notably, most of the management theories were introduced during the period of Industrial Revolution when the environment was not at all stable as well as the theme of management was getting expanded to the sphere of science rather than
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 5:11 PM
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Philosophy, Mission, and Organizing Framework of caring nursing theory - Assignment Example The college lives on the philosophy that the nursing discipline and profession is based on caring. The philosophy states that the contributions of nursing to the society focuses on the person as a whole through caring. The discipline requires a response by the practitioners towards the enhancement of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being. There are situations that call for nursing to occur and include enhancement of well-being through the contact of nurses and persons involved. He discipline has an art and science presence with the former etched on creativity in practice, and the latter on the complex body of knowledge. My philosophy in nursing is that, as a nurse, I have the responsibility of providing safe, holistic and patient-centered care to the public or the nursed individuals (American Nurses Association, 2010). In this case, patients deserve and require individualized attention and assistance whenever they need. On the other hand, nurses remain the providers of health assistance and care. The organizational framework of the college is based on criteria of nurturing a person through caring. Therefore, the main basis for examination is caring. Nursing is unique and requires a response from the nurse to a call from another person, where the nurse is supposed to respond by getting into the personÃ¢â¬â¢s situation and assisting professionally. According to Ray (2007), there is a challenge in nursing caring as described in her theory of bureaucratic caring. The theory suggests that nurses struggle with the requirement of serving the bureaucratic needs of the system while required to serve the caring needs of the human beings. This philosophy seems to be in opposition to the CON philosophy that aims at human needs for caring as the primary necessity. The bureaucracy has been brought about in the society by politics, social statuses, economy and technological advancements. The author notes that various hospital units
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 7:44 PM
Friday, August 23, 2019
Practicing financial planning (easy) - Essay Example Regarding the matter of income, their projections is to stay in their current salaried employment until the age of retirement. They expect their savings to have risen significantly at the point in time of their retirement. At the moment, they do not seem to have any plans of starting any form of business. Their current levels of income are sufficient to meet their needs and make plans for the future. However, the unpredictable nature of inflation often causes challenges in retirement planning (Carlson 41). The clients do not have any pending matters regarding taxation. They do not foresee any challenges that arise from unresolved financial matters. They seem to be comfortable in servicing the school loan and car loan, which they quote at 100,000 dollars and 30,000 dollars respectively. On this note, it might be argued that some of the issues that connect to the matter of expenses might require both long-term and short-term approaches. The clients did not provide any information regarding their status of health. They did not disclose any information on whether they have any history of lifestyle diseases. Some of the issues that continue to engage the attention of the client is the manner in which they shall pull their resources together towards strengthening their financial base. On this note, they require the kind of planning that would harness their current strengths while exploring opportunities for improved financial
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 10:17 PM
Kierkegaard and Sartre's versions of existentialism - Essay Example On the other hand, they are similar in ways such as their trust on individuality, will power and meaningful decision making through choices. Sartre defines existentialism in ways that deduce the nature of man as man himself and that he uses his wills to accomplish his own destiny using various principles. The first one is that a man is only what he designs of himself. This means that men in the world shoulder responsibilities due to their mere existence on earth and each man knows his in full. He further explains that every man is responsible for humanity in its entirety and not merely for himself (individuality). Every choice that a man makes affects the rest of his species. In another perspective, he declares that God does not exist. Therefore, all men carry the responsibility of their actions. He defines an ethical person as an independent thinker who lives generously in consideration to the needs of others. He sets goals, pursues them actively and enumerates decisions on how to achieve them. This is under the choice of active life. This drives to invisibility of a manÃ¢â¬â¢s existence if he fails to pursue his goals in an active manner or make plans of achieving them. This eventually leads to despair, where a man loses hope and the meaning of life itself. Kierkegaard however contradicts this by setting three models of existentialism, namely: aesthetic, ethical and supranational religious faith. The importance of making a choice and the difference between ethical and aesthetical choices are the areas of emphasis. Men shape their personalities through their choices, which in itself is an ethical quality. High levels of determination together with thorough thinking enables man to make an ethical choice that is absolute and genuine. Aesthetical choices are neither meaningful nor stable and usually made for timely or sensual pleasure. Thus, they are not as genuine as
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 1:37 AM
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Role of Banks in the Economic Development Essay Bank: An organization, usually a corporation, chartered by a state or federal government, which does most or all of the following: receives demand deposits and time deposits, honors instruments drawn on them, and pays interest on them; discounts notes, makes loans, and invests in securities; collects checks,drafts, and notes; certifies depositors checks; and issues drafts and cashiers checks. Features of Bank: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Money Dealing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Acceptance of Deposit Ã¢â¬ ¢ Grant of loan and advances Ã¢â¬ ¢ Payment and withdrawal of deposits Ã¢â¬ ¢ Transfer of funds Ã¢â¬ ¢ Portfolio management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Foreign Exchange dealing Banking; In general terms, the business activity of accepting and safeguarding money owned by other individuals and entity and then lending out this money in order to earn a profit. Banking is a business of accepting deposits and lending money. It is carried out by financial intermediaries, which performs the functions of safeguarding deposits and providing loans to the public. In other words, Banking means accepting for the purpose of lending or investment of deposits of money from public repayable on demand and can be withdrawn by checks, draft order and so on. Banking Company: Any company, which transacts the business of banking Banking System: Banking System is a principal mechanism through which the money supply of the country is created and controlled. The banking system enables us to understand Commercial Banks, Secondary Banks, Central Banks, Merchant Bank or Accepting Houses and Discount Houses but to exclude the Saving Banks and Investment and other intermediaries. Number and types of Banks: The number of banks in all now stands at 49 in Bangladesh. Out of the 49 banks, four are Nationalized Commercial Banks (NCBs), 28 local private commercial banks, 12 foreign banks and the rest five are Development Financial Institutions (DFIs). Sonali Bank is the largest among the NCBs while Pubali is leading in the private ones. Among the 12 foreign banks, Standard Chartered has become the largest in the country. Besides the scheduled banks, Samabai (Cooperative) Bank, Ansar-VDP Bank, Karmasansthan (Employment) Bank and Grameen bank are functioning in the financial sector. The number of total branches of all scheduled banks is 6,038 as of June 2000. Of the branches, 39.95 per cent (2,412) are located in the urban areas and 60.05 per cent (3,626) in the rural areas. Of the branches NCBs hold 3,616, private commercial banks 1,214, foreign banks 31 and specialized banks 1,177. Bangladesh Bank (BB) regulates and supervises the activities of all banks. The BB is now carrying out a reform program to ensure quality services by the banks. Commercial Bank: A bank offering checking accounts, savings accounts, certificates of deposit, personal and business loans, and other, similar services. Commercial banks charge fees and/or interest for many of their services, though they may pay interest on other services. A retail bank is often an individual branch of a commercial bank where one may procure these services. The main functions of commercial banks: The main functions of commercial banks are accepting deposits from the public and advancing them loans. However, besides these functions there are many other functions which these banks perform. All these functions can be divided under the following heads: 1. Accepting Deposits: The most important function of commercial banks is to accept deposits from the public. Various sections of society, according to their needs and economic condition, deposit their savings with the banks. For example, fixed and low income group people deposit their savings in small amounts from the points of view of security, income and saving promotion. On the other hand, traders and businessmen deposit their savings in the banks for the convenience of payment. 3. Over-Draft: Banks advance loans to its customerÃ¢â¬â¢s up-to a certain amount through over-drafts, if there are no deposits in the current account. For this banks demand a security from the customers and charge very high rate of interest. 4. Discounting of Bills of Exchange: This is the most prevalent and important method of advancing loans to the traders for short-term purposes. Under this system, banks advance loans to the traders and business firms by discounting their bills. In this way, businessmen get loans on the basis of their bills of exchange before the time of their maturity. 5. Investment of Funds: The banks invest their surplus funds in three types of securitiesÃ¢â¬âGovernment securities, other approved securities and other securities. Government securities include both, central and state governments, such as treasury bills, national savings certificate etc. Other securities include securities of state associated bodies like electricity boards, housing boards, debentures of Land Development Banks units of UTI, shares of Regional Rural banks etc. 6. Agency Functions: Banks function in the form of agents and representatives of their customers. Customers give their consent for performing such functions. The important functions of these types are as follows: 1. Banks collect checks, drafts, bills of exchange and dividends of the shares for their customers. 2. Banks make payment for their clients and at times accept the bills of exchange: of their customers for which payment is made at the fixed time. 3. Banks pay insurance premium of their customers. Besides this, they also deposit loan installments, income-tax, interest etc. as per directions. 4. Banks purchase and sell securities, shares and debentures on behalf of their customers. 5. Banks arrange to send money from one place to another for the convenience of their customers. 7. Miscellaneous Functions: Besides the functions mentioned above, banks perform many other functions of general utility which are as follows: 1. Banks make arrangement of lockers for the safe custody of valuable assets of their customers such as gold, silver, legal documents etc. 2. Banks give reference for their customers. 3. Banks collect necessary and useful statistics relating to trade and industry. 4. For facilitating foreign trade, banks undertake to sell and purchase foreign exchange. 5. Banks advise their clients relating to investment decisions as specialist 6. Bank does the under-writing of shares and debentures also. 7. Banks issue letters of credit. 8. During natural calamities, banks are highly useful in mobilizing funds and donations. 9. Banks provide loans for consumer durables like Car, Air-conditioner, and Fridge etc. Central Bank: The entity responsible for overseeing the monetary system for a nation (or group of nations). Central banks have a wide range of responsibilities, from overseeing monetary policy to implementing specific goals such as currency stability, low inflation and full employment. Central banks also generally issue currency, function as the bank of the government, regulate the credit system, oversee commercial banks, manage exchange reserves and act as a lender of last resort. Function of Central Bank: In the monetary and banking setup of a country, central bank occupies central position and perhaps, it is because of this fact that this called as the central bank. In this way, this bank works as an institution whose main objective is to control and regulate money supply keeping in view the welfare of the people. Central bank is an institution that fulfills the credit needs of banks and other credit institution, which woks as banker to the banks and the government and which work for the economic interest of the country. 1. Monopoly of note issue: Note issue primarily is the main function of a central bank in every country. These days, in all the countries where there is a central bank generally it has got the monopoly of the sole right of note issue. In the beginning this was not the function of central bank, but gradually all the central bank gas acquires this function. There are many advantages of the note issue by central banks some important ones are as follow: 1. Central bank controls the credit creating power of commercial bank. By controlling the amount of currency in circulation, the volume of credit can be controlled to quite a large extent. 2. People have more confidence in the currency issued by the control bank because it has the protection and recognition of the government. 3. In the event of monopoly of note issue of central bank, there will be uniformity in the currency system in the country. 4. The currency of the country will be flexible if the central bank of the country has the monopoly of note issue because central bank can bring about changes very early in the volume of paper money according to the needs of business, industry and messes. 5. The system of note issue has some advantages. If the central bank of the country has the monopoly of note issue, all such advantages will accrue to the government. 2. Bankers, Agent and Adviser to the Government: As banker to the government, central bank provides all those service and facilities to the government which public gets from the ordinary banks. It operates the account of the public enterprise. It mangers government departmental undertaking and government funds and where there is a need gives loan to the government. From time to time, central bank advice the government on monetary, banking and financial matters. 3. Custodian of Cash Reserve of Commercial Bank: Central bank is the bank of banks. This signifies that it has the same relationship with the commercial banks in the country that they gave with their customers. It provides security to their cash reserves, give them loan at the time of need, gives them advice on financial and economic matter and work as clearing house among various members bank. 4. Custodian of NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Reserve of International: Central bank is the custodian of the foreign currency obtained from various countries. This has become an important function of central bank. These days, because with its help it can stabilize the external value of the currency. 5. Lender of The Last Resort: Central bank works as lender of the last resort for commercial banks because in the time of need it provides them financial assistance and accommodation. Whenever a commercial bank faces financial crisis, central bank as lender of the last resort comes to its rescue by advancing loans and the bank is saved from being failed. 6. Clearing House Function: All commercial bank have their accounts with the central bank. Therefore, central bank settles the mutual transactions of banks and thus saves all banks controlling each other individually for setting their individual transaction. 7. Credit Control: These days, the most important function of a central bank is to control the volume of credit for bringing about stability in the general price level and accomplishing various other socio economic objectives. The significance of this function has increased so much that for property understanding it. The central bank has acquired the rights and powers of controlling the entire banking. A central bank can adopt various quantitative and qualitative methods for credit control such as bank rate, open market operation, changes in reserve ratio selective controls, moral situation etc. Other functions Besides the 7 functions explained above, central banks perform many other functions that are as follows: 8. Collection of Data: Central banks in almost all the countries collects statistical data regularly relating to economic aspects of money, credit, foreign exchange, banking etc. from time to time, committees and commission are appointed for studying various aspects relating to the aforesaid problem. 9. Central Banking in Developing Countries: The basic problem of underdeveloped countries is the problem of lack of capital formation whose main causes are lack of saving and investment. Therefore, central bank can play an important role by promoting capital formation through mobilizing saving s and encouraging investment. Role of banks in the Economic development: There should be no anonymity as about the importance of Banking in the Economic development of a developing country like Bangladesh. Banks performs some vital role that are conducive to economic development are as follows:- 1. To create generate capital market. 2. To play effective role in the Economy by supplying capital. 3. To persuade quench, bill of exchange etc. for easy mode of exchange 4. Financing of industries. 5. Financing of Trade and Commerce and rendering services to its chants. 6. Financing of Agriculture. 7. To maintain balance of foreign trade and to check price hike in the market by controlling credit.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 5:18 AM
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Problems in Defining Poverty Title: Relief of poverty is widely perceived to be the central aim of the social security system. With poverty itself being such a complex phenomenon, it is hardly surprising that differing approaches have been adopted to its definition and measurement. (Neville Harris: Social Security and Society in Harris: Social Security Law in Context p.41) Discuss. Introduction Poverty is indeed a complex concept and phenomenon, and its definition is the subject of considerable academic and social polemic. It is certainly true that there isÃ no single, universally accepted definition of poverty. In point of fact multifarious definitions of poverty are available in the United Kingdom and from many multilateral and international organisations. One relatively uncontroversial observation that can be made is that modern definitions of poverty have evolved away from conceptions grounded on a paucity of the physical necessities of life and concentrate more on relative and social notions of the state. The Definition of Measurement of Poverty: Competing Perspectives Given the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s membership of the European Union and the sovereignty of EU law among its 25 Member States comprising around 460 million citizens it is submitted that as good a place as any to start is the EU definition of poverty. Throughout the 1990s the definition endorsed by the EU was: Ã¢â¬Å"an income of less than half the EU averageÃ¢â¬  This figure was Ã £150 a week in 1993, and by this objective definition, around 50 million citizens were deemed to be living in poverty in the EU in 1993. However, in recent years the EU has expanded to embrace a number of central and eastern European states which are significantly poorer than its more established western European Member States and partly as a consequence the EU definition of poverty has changed to the following: Ã¢â¬ËPersons, families and groups of persons whose resources (material, cultural and social) are so limited as to exclude them from the minimum acceptable way of life in the Member State to which they belongÃ¢â¬â¢. This is clearly a more relative measure of poverty, acknowledging that poverty should not merely be measured on financial criteria but that the practical exclusion of those individuals and groups living in poverty from normal patterns of living, activities and customs should also be taken into account. There is therefore an important distinction between absolute and relative concepts of poverty. Absolute poverty relates to a state in which individuals do not possess the items necessary for the sustenance of life, including shelter, clothing and food. In work published at the turn of the last century Rowntree stipulated that a so-called Ã¢â¬Å"poverty lineÃ¢â¬ should be set on the basis of minimum needs. Whereas in 1995 the United Nations Copenhagen Declaration defined absolute poverty in the following terms: Ã¢â¬Å"a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to social services. On the other hand, relative poverty is typically defined as the inability of an individual to engage and participate fully in cultural social and economic terms in the society in which they live. In simple terms relative poverty is therefore based on a comparison between poor individuals and other more fortunate members of society. Townsend has adopted this definition of poverty, stating that it constitutes: the absence or inadequacy of those diets, amenities, standards, services and activities which are common or customary in society. In the United Kingdom poverty is measured in a variety of different ways and by different programmes.. These include: the National Plan on Social Exclusion, which was implemented after agreement at the 2000 Lisbon summit of the European Council to address poverty and social exclusion; the Households Below Average Income statistical analysis, which applies a threshold of 60% of median income as a proxy to draw the poverty line; and the Opportunity For All monitoring and review programme, which concentrates on assessing progress towards a fairer and more inclusive society. The United Kingdom Department of Work and Pensions is engaged in an ongoing review of the formula and strategy it employs to measure income poverty. The current thinking is that the best approach would be a tripartite assessment centred on absolute low income, relative low income and material deprivation and low income combined. A great many commentators in the field of sociology have criticised the notion of an absolute definition of poverty. It has been argued that to adopt a general or global definition would be to fail to take account of the crucial socio-economic differentials that distinguish local communities, regions, and nation states. It is submitted that there is little doubt that relative definitions of poverty are now supported by the majority of sociologists.. Two arguments are typically invoked to support this line. First, it is contended that poverty is not a fixed concept but one that can only be properly comprehended and defined in the general socio-economic environment of the particular society in which individuals live. This means that an individual will be classed as in poverty by reference only to the living standards of those around him or her. However, this may be a pregnable position, given that by implication the Ã¢â¬Å"poorÃ¢â¬ in any given society may be defined by the Ã¢â¬Å"richÃ¢â¬ and this may result in anomalies. It may be incongruous or inappropriate (in particular in the context of global poverty) to contend that a family that does not possess two cars, a DVD player, satellite TV and a computer with internet access should necessarily be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"in povertyÃ¢â¬ merely because those possessions are norms within the favoured society in question. Second, relative poverty is deemed an appropriate measure because individual societies possess a distinct and unique set of cultural norms and values. Arguably this contention is stronger because it seems appropriate that any definition poverty should take account of the sets of expectations, freedoms and choices that individuals have in the society of which they are a member. Cultural aspects of relative poverty focus on the ideal that all members of a society should be capable of sharing in the goods and services available and fundamental to that society and both engaging with and fully participating in the salient institutions of that society. On this basis, whereas the lack of a telephone might not be seen as putting an Ethiopian family into poverty, an old age pensioner living by herself in the United Kingdom might be deemed to be living in poverty if she does not possess such an instrument which is fundamental to life in our society. In the influential and authoritative study Poverty in the United Kingdom, Townsend argued: Ã¢â¬Å"Poverty can be defined objectively and applied consistently only in terms of the concept of relative deprivationÃ¢â¬ ¦ Individuals, families and groups in theÃ population can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the type of diet, participate in the activities and have the living conditions andÃ amenities which are customary, or at least widely encouraged or approved, in the societies to which they belong. Their resources are so seriously below those commanded by the average individual or family that they are, in effect, excluded from ordinary living patterns, customs or activities.Ã¢â¬  It appears therefore that the relativist approach is in the ascendancy, although this means that there can be no such thing as a clear poverty line, but rather a series of lines drawn in different contexts for different reasons. Concluding Comments In conclusion it is submitted that poverty, however it is ultimately defined or measured, is an inevitable by-product of the capitalist society in which we live, and which now proliferates in the Western World. Capitalism depends on a division between Ã¢â¬Å"havesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"have notsÃ¢â¬ and however poverty is measured or defined it is most unlikely that it will ever be eradicated, given that the profit-motive which drives the commercial motor of society is dependent on its existence as a baseline for endeavour. In particular, if a relative concept of poverty because entrenched and sovereign, we will never rid ourselves of the state, because some faction of society will always be disadvantaged in comparison to the most favoured. The first part of the title to this work states that: Ã¢â¬Å"Relief of poverty is widely perceived to be the central aim of the social security systemÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . This is probably true but the relief offered is largely analgesic only, providing basic painkilling for the symptoms of poverty but not directly addressing the root causes of poverty itself. The second part of the title to this work states: Ã¢â¬Å"With poverty itself being such a complex phenomenon, it is hardly surprising that differing approaches have been adopted to its definition and measurement. This is also true and can be explained by the fact that so many different agencies and policies, regional, national and international, are directed at tackling poverty for different reasons, from different perspectives and with different objectives.. Given the vast disparity that exists within society on a global but even on the national stage, it is hard to envisage a workable all-encompassing definition of poverty that would do justice to every context and every disadvantaged individual.. Consequently, it is likely and probably desirable that multiple definitions of poverty will continue to co-exist for the foreseeable future. BIBLIOGRAPHY Tiscali Reference Encyclopaedia: http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0021818.html Rowntree BS, Ã¢â¬Å"Poverty: A Study of Town LifeÃ¢â¬ , (1901) Longman. United Nations, 1995, The Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action, UN. Townsend P., Poverty in the United Kingdom, (1979) Penguin. Department of Work and Pensions, National Plan on Social Exclusion: http://www.dwp..gov.uk/publications/dwp/2003/nap/ Department of Work and Pensions, Households Below Average Income: http://www.dwp..gov.uk/asd/hbai.asp Department of Work and Pensions, Opportunity For All: http://www.dwp.gov.uk/ofa/ Veit-Wilson, J (1987), Consensual Approaches to Poverty Lines and Social Security, Journal of Social Policy, 16(2), pp.183-211 Muffels, R, Berghman J and Dirven, H (1992), A Multi-Method Approach to Monitor the Evolution of Poverty, Journal of European Social Policy, 2(3), pp.193-213. 1  http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0021818.html.  See: http://www.childreninwales.org.uk/2157.html.  Rowntree BS, Ã¢â¬Å"Poverty: A Study of Town LifeÃ¢â¬ , (1901) Longman.  United Nations, 1995, The Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action, UN.  Townsend P., Poverty in the United Kingdom, (1979) Penguin.  See: http://www.dwp.gov.uk/publications/dwp/2003/nap/  See: http://www.dwp.gov.uk/asd/hbai.asp.  See: http://www.dwp.gov.uk/ofa/.  See: http://www.dwp.gov.uk/.  It is proposed that each of the measurements should be on a before housing cost basis.  See inter alia: Veit-Wilson, J (1987), Consensual Approaches to Poverty Lines and Social Security. Journal of Social Policy, 16(2), pp.183-211.  Townsend P., Poverty in the United Kingdom, 1979, p31  See for an insightful commentary and analysis: Muffels, R, Berghman J and Dirven, H (1992), A Multi-Method Approach to Monitor the Evolution of Poverty, Journal of European Social Policy, 2(3), pp.193-213.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 8:59 AM
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Use Of Nature In Asian American Painting Film Studies Essay Nature played an important role in the history of Chinese and Japanese art. Many factors influenced the use of nature in these art forms. During the northern Sung Dynasty, the Emperor officially announced nature as the only subject worthy of painting (ICS 5 Class Lecture Notes). All the paintings were done in the formal hanging scroll format. Artists used dark colors as the backbone of the paintings so it would make it easier to hang them. Artists did not use the reality of the nature but created abstraction of the reality in their paintings. During this period, all the scholar painters used to live a subsidized life. They would paint for the Emperor and obtain necessities from him in return. Because of this, they did not have to look for other means of making money. Hence they could concentrate on their paintings. All the scholar artists would go out, live in the nature, and depend on it to gain ideas for their paintings. I believe that this was also a significant reason why nature and landscape were used a lot in their paintings. A good example of this is Fan Kuans painting Travelers on a Mountain Path. We can see a clear rational view of the nature in this painting. It is called the clear rational picture because as an audience if you put your self in the painting you can actually find your way through. Confucius emphasized on people to use their rational mind (Catalyst Review Slides). Rationality in painting is where you can have a clear rational landscape. Frequently, artists would not show the whole view in their painting because they wanted the audience to use their imagination in order to figure out the rest. In this painting, Kuan is using a lot of brushstrokes to show the mountains, waterfall, trees and rivers. These brushstrokes were meticulous because artist would take years to finish this kind of painting. These paintings were done on silk, so the artists were not able to erase their mistakes. Therefore they had to think a lot and make sure that th ey do it right. Nature also played a big role in the religious beliefs of the Chinese. During the southern Sung Dynasty, Chinese believed in Taoist cosmology, which expresses Yin and Yang energy in the universe. Yin is for feminine and was represented by water and Yang is for masculine and was represented by mountains and they come to gather in the painting. Artists made the paintings, which were intuitive, suggestive, and rapid. Taoism and Chinese culture had a special meaning for mountains. In Mandarin, a word that translates to Landscape means mountains and water (Catalyst Lecture Notes). This is why I believe Chinese artists used mountains and different forms of water, such as rivers, waterfalls, streams, mist, and clouds, in their paintings to show the landscape. The landscape the artist would show would be very misty. You can notice this in Ma Yuans painting Bare Willows and Distant Mountains. Even during the Yuan Dynasty, nature was being used in the paintings because the scholar painter esta blished their residency in the mountains. They were in harmony with the nature, which I believe must have influenced their paintings. Japanese painters also used nature in their art, but they had their own style. They used the multiple panels of paintings with real 24k gold in the background. Hasegauas Initial stages of the Summer Siege is an important example of this. Winter Landscape by Sesshu is also a good example of the use of landscape by the Japanese artists. The painting is used to show how Zen Buddhist monks would connect to the universe via meditation. It is completely abstract. I also believe that the artist is making a strong statement about winter and coldness in this painting. He is using very thick, black, and sharp brushstrokes to match the weather. Japanese used woodblock prints in their art. It is different from painting. They used a special method to make these prints. Japanese artists used nature even in the woodblock prints. Hokusai is showing one of the 36 different views of Mount Fuji in his woodblock print Under The Wave Off Kanagawa Point. Hokusai tries to freeze the most dramatic movement in time, which you can see in this print when you see the frozen wave. In both Chinese and Japanese cultures, the inspiration of nature is remarkably apparent. I believe that in Asian art landscape painting shows the relationship between humans and nature. Asian artists used water and mountains in their paintings to show the harmony in nature. We could see nature in all of the Asian paintings. The use of nature was also carried over by the Asian American artists. The first Asian immigrants who migrated to United States often faced poverty in their homeland but came to United States with a hope of a better life (Catalyst Notes). The majority of them came to California. The Chinese were among the first Asians to come to United States. Among the Chinese emigrants there were talented artists who had the training in the classic Eastern art techniques. They had come with the curiosity about the Western art. These artists later enrolled in the western art training centers like the California School of Fine Arts. The Japanese arrived in the United States later. The Japanese also made significant artistic contributions to Californias art. When the Asian artists arrived to the United States they had to make some adjustments. They did not have a subsidized way of living in the United States. Instead, they had to find other means of making money to support their living. Chiura Obata i s one of the Japanese artists, who came to the United States in 1903 and settled in San Francisco. He was one of the lucky ones who had found a teaching job at U C Berkeley. I would like to use Chiura Obatas experiences, after coming to the United States, to show how the use of nature was transferred from Asian artists to Asian American artists. When Obata came to America, his paintings were done on silk and it contained landscapes. He used classic Japanese brush painting and combined it with western art. He did some water colors and ink sketches. He used his Japanese art to portray Californias landscape. In his painting Monterey Coast, we can see lots of brush stroke movements were used to show the waves. You could never see the use of shadow in Asian art, but Obata learned about the shadow in the paintings at the western artists exhibition. We can see him use his new technique of shadow in his painting Monterey Coast. He was also very fond of Yosemites nature. He did lots of paint ings about Yosemite. Obata was a master of Sumi-e art. The Sumi-e art is a style of ink brush painting. Obata also did his most famous work of woodblock prints woodblock prints, which was titled World Landscape Series-America. Obata was one of the Asian American artists, who used the original Asian art with landscapes and nature and added that to the American art. World War II had a major influence on Asian artists and their views about art. All the artists turned to their personal experiences and beliefs for inspiration instead of looking at nature. They still used nature in their paintings but it served as a visual diary of peoples daily life at the relocation center. In 1940s, during the World War II, Obata and his family along with other 100,000 Japanese Americans moved to the inlands from the west coast. He was sent to the relocation camp in Tanforan at first and than to Topaz, Utah. While he was in camp he made about hundred sketches and paintings. He started an art school in Topaz, which had about 600 students. His painting Silent Moonlight at Tanforan is a good example of the artists experiences at the relocation center. In this painting he is showing the horse stables where people had to live. I think in this painting he is also using the colors to show the emotions of the people. The Moon is shown very thin and covered with cloud. He is trying to express depression among the people. He also did some drawings and paintings of landscape and sky that gave sense of isolation, determination and alienation. During the time of WWII Japanese artists used their Asian art to show their experiences, which still contained nature. Due to internment, Japanese American artists had lost their livelihood and their occupations after their release and it was portrayed in lot of the artwork. The artists were completely transformed because of their internment experience. By the end of World War II, the Western world and California had fallen a part from all artistic traditions. Modern, abstract art got added to the Western world. Many of the California Asian artists did abstract painting. By this time the artists started using urban landscape instead of a land landscape. They would take all the ordinary things and turn them in to very special compositions. They did this even in the woodblock prints. Old Car by Wah Ming Chang is a good example of this. Asian artists started using watercolors in their paintings. You can see this in the San Francisco Chinatown by Yun Gee. He is using more bright colors like Western artist in this painting. He is trying to be revolutionary by experimenting very bright and intense colors. In early 1990s there was an increase in Asian American art activity, which brought national attention to Asian American art (Fresh Talk Daring Gazes, pg.22). A group of English speaking young Asian Americans had emerged. During the 1980s and 1990s the use of nature in art became less important. The young Asian American artists started designing their art to reflect and accommodate the migratory experiences of the Asian emigrants. As Elaine Kim states in her book Fresh Talk Daring Gazes, all the problems that Asian American society faces needed to come out for discussion. One of the good examples about this is artist Pacita Abads painting called I Thought The Streets were Lined with Gold. In this painting she has stuffed lot of pictures with sequences and other things. She is trying to show how Filipinos and Asian emigrants came to the United States with high hopes, but the actual experiences at their arrival were very different. They had to take up all the low paying jobs like childc are, day labor, nursing etc. In another art Framing An American Identity by Tommie Arai, the artist is showing the small passport size pictures to show their personal identity. Arai is trying to explore the identity of those people who have a different self-identity. There are other images in the background, which represents the real identity of those people. I believe that in this picture Arai is trying to show that identity is not fixed or original essence, but it is flowing and changeable to balance all the experiences and places lived. It is very true that people had to recreate their identity once they came to the United States. Artist Sung Ho Choi is using the theme of the American flag as a target in her art called American Pie. It is about American experiences of all the Asian emigrants with Government, job markets, and the segregation of people etc. She is using the Korean newspaper articles and each article represents the horror stories of the emigrants. The US flag repres ents the freedom. All of these images together represent the goals and the American dreams that all the immigrants had. We can see how the use of nature became less important over time and vanished out of the Asian American paintings. . They geared their artworks towards showing the life experiences of the emigrants and the struggles they had to go through when they came to the United States.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 12:40 PM
Monday, August 19, 2019
Astrology Astrology is the science of certain cryptic relations between the celestial bodies and terrestrial life. It is considered an art and a practical science. It lays no claim to be what used to be called an exact science, but studies certain predispositions or tendencies in human life, which are sometimes indicated so clearly that they become virtual certainties. The possible uses of astrology are endless and may be used to a variety of means. Since the days of the Chaldeans, it was known that the sun, moon, and planets followed similar paths, the zodiac. It is a zone of the celestial sphere that extends from 8.5 degrees on either side if the path of the sun. As a primitive calendar, the zodiacal belt was arbitrarily divided into twelve sections of 30 degrees each. these are the famous signs of the zodiac. The orgins of the names given to each sign extend into the most remote regions of antiquity. Terrestrial animal gods, whether real or imagined , were one day projected onto the constellations which, in the Chaldean imagination, they resembled. This celestial menagerie has furthermore given the zodiac its name, for in greek, it means "route of animals." The sun enters the first zodiacal sign, Aries , and then continues its path through the remaining eleven signs. The twelve signs of the zodiac are: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. The moon and the planets pass through the signs too, but obviously at different speeds from those of the sun. The moon, which is close to the earth, circles the zodiac in twenty-nine days, while the planet Pluto needs two hundred fifty years. Planets also can be seen to slow down, stop, and even reverse directions in relationship to the constellations that they cross. In reality, the planet inexorably continues along its way. But the speed of the earth itself interacts with that of the planet to occasionally give this impression. The symbolism of the twelve signs is a very ancient tradition passed along from Manilius and Ptolemy of Alexandria. It ascribes well-defined properties to each sign, influences transmitted to the child at birth that determine his character, health, and destiny. Passing through twelve signs, the planets, play different parts. Being born at the moment when one of the signs is occupied by several planets confers the properties of this sign on the individual. The most important celestial figure is that of the sun. This what determines what sign the child was born under. In this way an ancient tradition has divided human beings into twelve
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 4:21 PM
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Throughout this course we learned about slavery and it's effects on our country and on African Americans. Slavery and racism is prevalent throughout the Americas before during and after Thomas Jefferson's presidency. Some people say that Jefferson did not really help stop any of the slavery in the United States. I feel very differently and I will explain why throughout this essay. Throughout this essay I will be explaining how views of race were changed in the United States after the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, and how the events of the Jeffersonian Era set the stage for race relations for the nineteenth century. "Nobody wishes more ardently to see an abolition, not only of the trade, but of the condition of slavery; and certainly, nobody will be more willing to encounter every sacrifice for that object." (Thomas Jefferson to Brissot de Warville, 1788. ME 6:428) Thomas Jefferson said this to Brissot de Warville in 1788 explaining his view on slavery in the United States. This was both positive and negative for Thomas Jefferson, in many ways. He was very positive in the abolition of slavery in the United States because Jefferson says he would do anything to stop slavery, and the slave trade in the States. Thomas Jefferson had a theory that the United States could use part of the coast of Africa, and it would be used as an establishment where African American who were in the states would be moved. Jefferson sees this as the best way to deal with the slavery issue. Jefferson thinks this is a good idea because when the African Americans got back to Africa they would take the things they learned w ile they were enslaved here and us them back in Africa. Thomas Jefferson saw this as retribution to the African Americans for all that t... ...nows that slavery would have ripped our great country into two sides, one for slavery and one against slavery. He knew that our county would not have survived it we had slavery in it and through his speech he shows it. Throughout this essay I explained the movie Amistad and how race relations were seen throughout the movie. This movie really helps people see how horrible it was for African Americans back in 1839-1842. The movie showed the bias that this country had against people from Africa and how horrible our country treated slaves. Through John Quince Adams speech it stated how the problem was going to be fixed, and that was through a civil war. Citations http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0118607/ http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/jeffersonian_era/index.cfm http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1290.htm http://www.american.edu/TED/slave.htm
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 8:02 PM
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Rapid urbanisation, modernisation and population growing in developing states has led to an rush of non-communicable diseases which are associated with important morbidity and mortality. Metabolic Syndrome besides described as Ã¢â¬Å" Deadly Quartet Ã¢â¬ and X syndrome ( 2, 3 ) is one of these disease entities defined by bunch of cardiovascular hazard factors which to a greater extent is influenced by ethnicity/race. This encompasses atherogenic dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, dysglycemia and splanchnic fleshiness and pro coagulator province. Apart from increasing prevalence, the age of oncoming is besides worsening among South Asiatic ( SA ) population due to familial sensitivity, ingestion of easy available energy dense nutrients from an early age. This tendency has got major wellness deductions since South Asians constitute one fifth of population all over the universe ( 4 ) and the wellness attention system is non really fit to cover with this medical crisis. Evidence sugge sts that it non merely amplifies the hazard of coronary bosom disease ( 5 ) but besides gives rise to cerebrovascular diseases. Five diagnostic standards have been put frontward since the origin of this syndrome which has created perplexity among practicians. In 1998, World Health Organization ( WHO ) ab initio proposed a definition for metabolic syndrome ( 6 ) with chief accent on gluco-centricity. In 1999, the European Group for the survey of Insulin Resistance ( EGIR ) recommended more or less similar standards with lower cut offs for high blood pressure ( 7 ) . Thereafter in 2001, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III ( NCEP ATP III ) proposed another definition for the diagnosing of metabolic syndrome with less focal point on insulin opposition as compared to WHO standards but non turn toing separate cut off points of waist perimeter for Asiatic population ab initio ( 8 ) . In 2003, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist ( AACE ) proposed another set of standards for the diagnosing of metabolic syndrome. The chief restriction of the above mentioned standards is that the diagnosing is based on clinical judgement alternatively of presence of specific figure of hazard factors ( 9 ) . Sing that SA have a higher per centum of organic structure fat chiefly in the signifier of abdominal adiposeness at a lower BMI in comparing with other population, International Diabetes Federation ( IDF ) in 2005 suggested separate cutoff points of waist perimeter for Asiatic population and defined cardinal fleshiness as waist perimeter of more than 80 centimeter for adult females and 90 centimeter in work forces based on local statistics from the corresponding country ( 10 ) . The revised NCEP ATPIII modified for South Asiatic population incorporated the same cut off points for Asiatic population as given by IDF ( Table 1 ) . Apart from the cut off differences, NCEP ATP III gives equal weight to each constituent of metabolic syndrome as compared to IDF for which abdominal fleshiness remains a requirement for the diagnosing ( 10 ) . Furthermore, microalbuminuria which is a controversial variable of WHO criteria is non included in other definitions. Among these definitions, WHO, NCEP ATPIII & A ; IDF have been the chief 1s which are used most widely ( Table 1 ) . Type 2 diabetes is besides emerging as a planetary epidemic with increasing prevalence in developing states. Pakistan is among top 10 states estimated to hold the highest figure of diabetics busying 6th place on the diabetes prevalence naming presently ( 11 ) and it is estimated that prevalence would be doubled by 2025. Metabolic syndrome in combination with diabetes increases the hazard of both macro vascular, micro vascular complications and coronary artery disease patterned advance due to associated high blood pressure, lipoprotein abnormalcies and splanchnic fleshiness ( 12 ) . There are surveies that have looked into the differences in most widely used definitions of metabolic syndrome in general ( 13-17 ) , but merely few surveies have compared these definitions in the diabetic population ( 18-20 ) . Therefore we decided to find the frequence of metabolic syndrome in Type 2 diabetics harmonizing to NCEP ATPIII, IDF and WHO definitions and so to compare and contrast these traits within Pakistani population. Methods: This survey was conducted at the out-patient clinics of one of the big third attention infirmaries at Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected retrospectively of type 2 diabetic patients sing clinics between June till November 2008 by utilizing a questionnaire which included demographic features and single constituents of metabolic syndrome i.e. weight, tallness, waist perimeter and BMI etc. Both hip and waist perimeter were recorded in centimetres and waist/hip perimeter was calculated ( WHR ) . BMI was calculated as a ratio of weight in kilogram to height in metres squared.Lab checks:All the research lab trials which are routinely done for patients with type 2 diabetes including triglycerides and high denseness lipoprotein ( HDL-C ) were recorded. Patients already on anti hypertensive and anti lipid medicines specifically in the signifier of fibric acid derived functions and nicotinic acids were taken as instances of high blood pressure and hypertriglyceridimia severally irrespective of their blood force per unit area and lipid degrees. Since all the patients in the survey were diabetics, insulin degrees were non taken into history. Statistical Analysis: The information was analyzed individually harmonizing to NCEP ATP III, IDF and WHO definitions and the consequences were so compared. The frequence of Metabolic syndrome was calculated with 95 % CI based on three different standards Ã¢â¬Ës. The informations were presented as the mean AÃ ± SD or per centum ; uninterrupted variables were compared by agencies of independent sample t-test and categorical variables were compared by chi-square. All analyses were conducted by utilizing the statistical bundle for societal scientific disciplines SPSS 14. A kappa trial was done to find the concurrency between three definitions. In univariate analyses, comparing between metabolic syndrome and without metabolic syndrome was done for each variable of involvement. Multivariable logistic arrested development analysis was conducted to place the factors associated with metabolic syndrome. All P values were two tailed and considered statistically important ifA aÃ¢â¬ °Ã ¤ 0.05. Out of entire 210 type 2 diabetic patients, 112 ( 53.3 % ) were males and 98 ( 46.7 % ) were females. Their average age ( standard divergence ) was 53.35 AÃ ± 11.46 old ages. The mean ( SD ) continuance of diabetes mellitus was 8.48 AÃ ± 7.18 old ages. One hundred and ninety three ( 91.9 % ) were found to hold metabolic syndrome harmonizing to NCEP ATP III in comparing to 182 ( 86.7 % ) based on IDF standards. Lower frequence was documented with WHO standards of 171 ( 81.4 % ) . The frequence increased to 179 ( 85.2 % ) by WHO by utilizing the new cut offs for specifying corpulence ( BMI of 23 vs. 30 ) . The grade of understanding ( kappa statistic ) between WHO and ATP III and WHO and IDF definitions were 0.436 95 % CI 0.26-0.60 and 0.417 95 % CI 0.25-0.57respectively. In contrast kappa statistic between IDF and ATP III definitions was found to be 0.728 95 % CI 0.57-0.87.The overall understanding between three definitions was 0.37 ( 95 % CI 0.26-0.51 ) .The cardinal fleshiness was present in 162 patients ( 77 % ) by WHO followed by 197 ( 90.5 % ) based on IDF & A ; NCEP ATP III. Hypertension was found in 116 patients ( 55.2 % ) harmonizing to WHO in comparing to 147 ( 70 % ) by NCEP & A ; IDF cut off of blood force per unit area. Presence of low HDL cholesterin once more differed being present in 77 ( 36.7 % ) when WHO definition was applied and 144 ( 68.6 % ) by ATP III and IDF. Furthermore, gender wise dislocation of frequence of metabolic syndrome by WHO showed that 84 ( 85.7 % ) of females suffered from metabolic syndrome as compared to 87 ( 77.7 % ) in males a difference non statistically important ( p=0.13 ) . However, by all other standards metabolic syndrome was significantly more common among females as compared to males, 95.9 % vs. 88.4 % ( p=0.04 ) by ATP III & A ; 95.9 % vs. 78.6 % ( p & lt ; 0.001 ) by IDF. For prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, no statistically important difference between both genders was found. However, for low HDL cholesterin, prevalence was higher in males 44 ( 57.14 % ) than in females 33 ( 43 % ) by WHO standards ( P & lt ; 0.001 ) . In contrast on the footing of ATP III and IDF definitions, prevalence of low HDL cholesterin degrees was higher ( p=0.009 ) in females 77 ( 57.46 % ) than in males 57 ( 42.53 % ) . Likewise, cardinal fleshiness was found to be more common among female patients based on IDF & A ; NCEP ( ATPIII ) cutoffs 64.8 % females vs. 35.2 % ( & lt ; 0.001 ) but demoing rearward form with WHO criteria,57.14 % males vs. 43 % females ( p-value & lt ; 0.001 ) . Discussion: Our survey showed a high frequence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetics based on NECP ( ATPIII ) and IDF standards. This frequence was rather high ( 91.9 % ) as compared to 46 % found in another infirmary based survey from Pakistan ( 21 ) . This difference could non be merely attributed to the different waist cutoffs used based on modified NCEP ( ATPIII ) in our survey because even comparing with WHO categorization revealed important difference between two surveies from the same part. This difference in frequence is really interesting maintaining in position that both of these surveies were done in the same part but different vicinities. The disparity could be due to low frequence of fleshiness found in the old survey ( 30 % ) in comparing to our survey ( 90.5 % ) . It is speculated that this intra regional difference could be due to the fact that certain communities have high inclination to develop fleshiness and metabolic syndrome despite of belonging to the same state due to differences in life manner, eating wonts and degree of physical activity. On the other manus, another infirmary based survey another metropolis revealed comparable frequence of metabolic syndrome harmonizing to NCEP standards ( 22 ) . In infirmary based survey from Iran the prevalence in type 2 diabetics on footing of NCEP ( ATPIII ) standards utilizing BMI alternatively of waist perimeter was found to be 65 % ( 23 ) .This difference highlights the importance of abdominal adiposeness which is a better marker of metabolic syndrome as compared to BMI. A multicenter infirmary based survey in Brazil showed instead close frequence ( 85 % ) in type 2 diabetics ( 24 ) although the survey population was rather different being white people of European descent. Likewise, in Finnish survey prevalence was found to be 91.5 % in diabetic work forces and 82.7 % in adult females ( 25 ) . Our information was besides consistent with Indian survey demoing prevalence of 91.1 % ( 16 ) utilizing the same NCEP ( ATPIII ) definition. However, separate constituents of metabolic syndrome were found to be more common in our population as compared to South Indians ( 16 ) . The higher frequence of metabolic syndrome in diabetic population fou nd in our survey is a beginning of major concern since diabetes itself is an of import hazard factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ( ASCVD ) and presence of metabolic syndrome in combination plants as a two border blade. Evidence suggests that combination of the constituents of the metabolic syndrome is associated with both micro and macro vascular complications and distal neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 24 ) . In position of the high frequence, type 2 diabetic patients should non merely be screened for this deathly syndrome but besides offered intensive direction in order to avoid complications. Similarly highly high frequence of cardinal fleshiness ( 90.5 % ) in our diabetic population is besides unreassuring since there is ample grounds associating cardinal fleshiness with coronary bosom disease ( 26 ) and insulin opposition is besides significantly associated with waist girth ( 27 ) . The higher frequence of metabolic syndrome in adult females harmonizing to all standards besides consistent with other surveies from South Asiatic states ( 28 ) could be attributed to less physical activity in adult females due to cultural and cultural limitations on out-of-door activities. This besides highlights the importance of instruction of our adult females in footings of bar of the development of metabolic syndrome with life manner intercession which would indirectly act upon life manner and eating wonts of whole household. The presence of multiple definitions of metabolic syndrome has been really confusing and argument ever exist which standards should be used in footings of diagnosing of metabolic syndrome particularly in diabetic patients. The somewhat higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome by ATP III definition in comparing to IDF ( 91.9 % vs. 86.7 % ) was likely due to the comparative flexibleness of the ATP III definition in footings of non taking abdominal fleshiness as a requirement for the diagnosing. Except for this difference the ATP III and IDF definitions are basically indistinguishable reflected in the grade of understanding ( kappa statistic ) between the two definitions which was in a good scope at 0.728. Harmonizing to this, NCEP ( ATPIII ) and IDF are the most dependable standards Ã¢â¬Ës for naming metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients, with NECP capturing more patients in comparing with IDF definition. In contrast WHO showed lower frequence of metabolic syndrome due to different cutoffs used for HDL degrees and fleshiness. This difference remained important even after seting it with BMI cutoffs for Asiatic population of 23 vs.30 endorsed by WHO expert audience every bit good ( 29, 30 ) pointing towards the fact that waist perimeter or cardinal fleshiness is more valuable tool for sensing of metabolic syndrome in Asiatic population.Decision:On the footing of these findings NCEP ( ATPIII ) modified standards should be sooner used in Pakistani population since do ing waist perimeter as an obligatory standard would still lose out 5.2 % of the instances of metabolic syndrome harmonizing to our survey. But to farther validate these recommendations we need surveies to gauge the prognostic power for micro vascular and macro vascular complications to set up the most appropriate definition of metabolic syndrome to be used in South Asiatic population with a diagnosing of type 2 diabetes. The alarmingly high frequence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes found in our survey points towards the fact that our wellness attention system needs to take emergent stairss in bar of this syndrome through life manner intercession plans.
Posted by Gloria Sweet at 11:43 PM